Short Chain Fatty Acid ⇒ Butyrate {60000044}

Record Keys


Parent:
Definition:
Butyrate
Queue:[  ]

Details


Initialisation date:
2020-09-17
Specification:
[  ]
Source:
[  ]

Links


Meta Information


Structural Type:
Fatty acid
Functional Type:
Energy Source
Function:
Immun regulator, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-cancer, Antioxidant, Anti-atherosclerosis, Anti-angiogenesis, Anti-obesity, Enhancing Gut integrity, Microbiome modulator

Notes:


- Mechanisms involved in gut microbiota-host communication. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), mainly propionate, acetate, and butyrate, stimulate Fox3+ Tregs and macrophages via GPR43 activation and HDAC inhibition. Fox3+ Tregs subsequently produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, while proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-12 are secreted by macrophages. Moreover, Th17 cells and effector memory T cells were downregulated by SCFAs. By suppressing PPARγ, SCFAs promote lipid oxidation. Although insulin production was enhanced by SCFAs, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis were both observed to occur even with SCFA treatment. L-carnitine and choline consumption contribute to the release of trimethylamine (TMA), which is then converted by FMO into trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Both SCFAs and TMAO activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, leading to IL-18 and IL-1β release. Through the MAPK/NF-κB signalling pathway, TMAO increases the levels of COX2, IL-6, and ICAM1. Secondary bile acids such as deoxycholic acid (DCA), lithocholic acid (LCA), and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) are produced in the intestine by gut microbiota and then participate in inflammatory modulation and blood sugar regulation. (3)

Shared Reference Notes


  • [1.1
    - Butyrate is the primary energy source of colonic epithelial cells, and adequate levels aid in maintaining barrier function. - Butyrate is essential in the maintenance of gastrointestinal health through inhibition of pro-inflammatory pathways and the reduction of oxidative stress within the colon.
  • [1.2
    - Butyrate is able to strongly inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and TNF-alpha by monocytes, whereas the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is significantly increased after bacterial stimulation. - Activation of Tregs by butyrate not only inhibits effector T cells but also produces the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10
  • [#Sjögren syndrome ] - The pSS patients had less beneficial or commensal butyrate-producing bacteria and a higher proportion of opportunistic pathogens with proinflammatory activity, which may impair intestinal barrier function and therefore contribute to inflammatory processes associated with pSS by increasing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and decreasing the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and the peripheral FOXP3 mRNA expression, implicated in the development and function of regulatory T cells (Treg) cells.
  • [1.3
    - Butyrate, upregulate the Vitamin D Receptor signaling
  • [1.4] [#Crohn’s disease] [#Escherichia coli] [#Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
    - Comprehensive overview of functional dysbiosis in the gut microbiome during IBD activity showed increases in facultative anaerobes, such as E. coli which correlates with inflammation status, and decreases in obligate anaerobes, such as #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and #Roseburia hominis -The results of the present study confirmed decreases in the abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, increases in Enterobacteriaceae, Pasteurellaceae, and Veillonellaceae and the presence of Fusobacterium in stool samples of CD patients. - Butyrate-producing bacteria are depleted in IBD patients, and probiotic treatment with these bacteria has therapeutic potential. - A higher proportion of #Lachnospiraceae in donor stool was associated with a higher success rate of FMT, and recipients that responded to FMT exhibited increases in butyrate-producing #Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. - The reduced SCFA levels in patients with IBD result from lower abundance of SCFA-producing bacteria, especially those of the phylum Firmicutes. - Butyrate can act as an energy source for normal colon epithelial cells, promoting their proliferation, but can also inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis.
  • [1.5
    - Dietary prebiotics, which can be metabolized by bacteria to produce butyrate, can be an intriguing new investigational approach to prevent #Immunotherapy-induced colitis and lead to improved patient outcomes. - Butyrate is a gut-microbiome-derived, anti-inflammatory metabolite that could be protective against ICI colitis, based on data from other forms of colitis. - #Dietary prebiotic starches that can increase butyrate production are a promising method of microbial manipulation that could be used to mitigate ICI colitis.
  • [1.6
    - Butyrate are restricted to certain microorganisms belonging to the phylum Firmicutes or Akkermansia muciniphilla
  • [1.7
    - The TCA cycle is dysregulated in colonocytes, due to the lack of butyrate. However, upon supplementation of butyrate, isolated colonocytes from a germ-free mouse dramatically increased mitochondrial respiration.
  • [1.8] [#Low fibre Diet
    - Butyrate-producing bacteria, like those belonging to Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phylum, exert their anti-inflammatory activity metabolizing dietary fibers: A low-fiber diet leads to reduced production of butyrate, which acts as a negative regulator of pro-inflammatory pathways and enhances the intestinal barrier function. - When Fibre is scarce, intestinal bacteria use the intestinal mucus as a nutrient, which leads to inflammation through close contact between bacteria and the epithelial layer.
  • [1.9
    - The gut microbiota of moderate and severe #Covid-19 patients has: a) lower Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, b) higher abundance of Proteobacteria; and c) lower abundance of beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria such as Roseburia and Lachnospira genera.
  • [#Alzheimer’s disease] - Colonization of the C. elegans gut with enteric bacterial pathogens disrupted proteostasis in the intestine, muscle, neurons, and the gonad. - The presence of bacteria that conditionally synthesize butyrate, a molecule previously shown to be beneficial in neurodegenerative disease models, suppressed aggregation and the associated proteotoxicity.
  • [1.11] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Keto diet
    - MD-ketogenic diet improved the AD biomarkers viz. amyloid and tau proteins in the cerebrospinal fluids of MCI patients, wherein these changes linked with increased gut butyrate. - There is a significant reduction in Aβ levels and increase in behavioral responses after 12-weeks of sodium butyrate supplementation in mouse
  • [1.12
    - The SCFA receptor known as GPR109a is expressed on innate immune cells, adipocytes, and intestinal epithelial cells to respond to butyrate and niacin (vitamin B3), reducing inflammatory responses
  • - Butyrate was shown to rescue decreased GLP-1 receptor expression in the liver and decrease inflammation
  • [1.13
    - Increases in butyrate with increases in insulin and glucose, and decreases in HDL cholesterol and ghrelin.
  • [1.14
    - #Fusobacterium, utilizes different pathways like those for Glutamate (4-aminobutyrate) and Lysine for butyrate production, which are associated with a release of harmful byproducts like ammonia.
  • [1.15
    - Butyrate suppresses proinflammatory genes and tumor growth, the latter via histone deacetylase inhibition, which downregulates oncogenic signaling pathways.
  • [1.16] [#Diabetes Type 2
  • [1.17
  • [1.18] [#Eosinophilic esophagitis
    - Butyrate > restore the barrier function of esophageal epithelial cells after an inflammatory insult
  • [1.19] [#Covid-19
  • - Butyrate > critical regulator of intestinal barrier integrity and mucosal immune homeostasis. - Eubacterium rectale, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and Anaerostipes coli S22/1 > main butyrate producers
  • [1.21] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - Butyrate can reduce AD by affecting the #P-glycoprotein pathway
  • - Butyrate > robust anticancer ability in various #Cancer cell cultures and mouse models. - It can effectively promote #Cancer cell apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation capacity and activity through different signaling pathways
  • [1.22
    - Butyrate administration to mothers > renders newborn mice resistant to inflammation and injury of bile ducts > improves survival. - Bacteroidetes and Clostridia and increases glutamate/#Glutamine and hypoxanthine in stool metabolites of newborn mice > prevention of hepatic immune cell activation and survival. - In human neonates with #Biliary atresia, the fecal microbiome signature of these bacteria is under-represented, with suppression of glutamate/#Glutamine and increased hypoxanthine pathways. - The direct administration of butyrate or #Glutamine to newborn mice attenuates the disease phenotype, but only #Glutamine renders bile duct epithelial cells resistant to cytotoxicity by natural killer cells.
  • [1.23] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - #Exclusive Enteral Nutrition > reduce microbial diversity > lower SCFA concentrations (including butyrate) & reduce #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which is usually considered beneficial in IBD. - Responders to EEN showed lower bacterial richness than nonresponders. - EEN > showed a decrease in Shannon diversity with EEN, but this returned to pretreatment levels two months after EEN was stopped, as did decreases in Bifidobacterium, Ruminococcus, and Faecalibacterium. - It is hypothesized that some of these decreases in specific taxa and diversity are simply due to the lack of fibre in EEN.
  • [1.24] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - butyrate or #Propionate, but not acetate > rapidly converted to the corresponding acyl-CoAs > used by p300 to catalyze auto-acylation of the autoinhibitory loop > activate the acetyltransferase p300 > activating the enzyme for histone/protein acetylation > rapid and sustained increases in histone acetylation.
  • [1.25] [#Sleep Deprivation
    - fecal butyrate concentrations positively correlated with the relative abundance of #Butyricimonas. - the abundance of SCFAs-producing microbes, such as #Butyricicoccus, #Butyricimonas, and #Alistipes markedly decreased after SD. - butyrate > significantly reduced after 48 h of SD > After 1 week of sleep recovery, butyrate concentrations returned.
  • [#Sleep Deprivation] - #Streptococcus was negatively correlated with the concentration of fecal butyrate and positively correlated with the KEGG pathway of #Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis.
  • [1.26
    - butyrate plays a role in regulating immune response via expansion of Treg cell populations, which is suggestive of a role for SCFA in ameliorating pro-inflammatory responses of immune cells to antigenic stimuli. - #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, help maintain homeostasis through production of SCFAs (butyrate) and modulation of downstream inflammatory pathways through potential induction of a tolerogenic cytokine profile (e.g., low secretion of proinflammatory and elevated secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines)
  • [1.27
    - Butyrate inhibits gut microbiome #Bacteroides - Butyrate inhibition depends on which #Sugar a given #Bacteroides strain uses - Core genome variation in Acyl-CoA enzymes mediates butyrate defense - Each #Bacteroides unique fitness landscape unpredictable by interaction of ecosystem parts
  • [1.28] [#Gout
  • [1.29] [#Behcet’s Disease
  • [#Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis] - The gut microbial communities of the ALS patients were more diverse and were deficient in #Prevotella spp. compared with those of their spouses. - Predictive analysis of microbial enzymes revealed that ALS patients had decreased activity in several metabolic pathways, including carbon metabolism, butyrate metabolism, and systems involving histidine kinase and response regulators.
  • [1.31] [#Chronic kidney disease
    - Bacterial species involved in butyrate production, #Indole synthesis and mucin degradation were also related to CKD.
  • [1.32
    - #Firmicutes and #Bacteroides are the main butyrate producing phyla
  • - Butyrate exhibits a broad range of pharmacological activities, including microbiome modulator, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, metabolic pathways regulator, anti-angiogenesis, and antioxidant. - Butyrate is a four-carbon SCFA, mainly known as a fuel for colonocytes. In addition to dietary fibers especially resistant starch, which is an indirect source of butyrate, some types of cheese, butter, and milk also contain small amounts of butyrate.
  • - Butyrate could induce adipogenesis by activating PPARγ, which is supported by several studies. Adipogenesis is associated with reduced inflammatory and oxidative molecules production in adipose tissue, organs lipotoxicity and IR
  • [#Heart failure] [#Eubacterium hallii, #Lachnospiraceae, #Ruminococcaceae] - patients with HF have a decrease in butyrate-producing bacteria, especially, Lachnospiracea and Ruminococcacea families. - reduction of the butyrate-producing Eubacterium Halli and Lachnospiracea is correlated with increased inflammation, severity of disease, heart damage and mortality
  • [1.33
    - butyrate, a fermentation product of gut microbiota, can regulate tight junction protein expression and influence histone deacetylase activity of BBB epigenetically.
  • - bacterial SCFA-butyrate regulates the biosynthesis of #Serotonin, which is responsible for initiating peristalsis.
  • [1.34] [#Parkinson’s Disease] [#Indole-3-propionic acid, #Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - in PD Patient > Fecal SCFA levels of butyric acid, #Valeric acid and propionic acid are reduced, whereas plasma levels were higher. - in PD Patient > Low fecal concentration of most SCFAs > increased plasma propionic acid concentration > More severe motor impairment - in PD Patient > Low fecal levels of butyric acid and higher plasma concentrations of butyric acid and #Valeric acid > More serious cognitive symptoms.
  • [1.35
    - butyrate has been shown to be a potential therapeutic strategy for #Atherosclerosis, specifically by its promoting cholesterol efflux through upregulation of ABCA1 expression in macrophages, thereby ameliorating #Atherosclerosis.
  • - children with #Autism, SCFA levels were differentially altered, with an increase in #Propionate and #Acetate and a decrease in butyrate levels. - rats fed with #Propionate exhibited phenotypic features similar to those of #Autism.
  • - butyrate has a direct impact on the intestine, promoting intestinal barrier function, accelerating repair of intestinal epithelial cell damage, and maintaining intestinal homeostasis.
  • [#Diabetes Type 2] - butyrate has also been shown to increase diverse circulating glucose-regulating hormones by promoting intestinal expression of GLP-1, ultimately lowering blood glucose levels.
  • [#Hypertension] - Blood pressure > increased #Acetate, butyrate, and #Propionate
  • [1.36
    - #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, member of Clostridium leptum subgroup, representing more than 5% of the total gut microbiota in healthy humans, is one of the most abundant #Butyric acid producing bacteria of the gut microbiome. It favorably modulates intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and colonocyte metabolism. - it reduces intestinal inflammatory processes with inhibition of the pro-inflammatory interleukin 8.
  • [1.37] [#Atopic Dermatitis
    - children and infants suffering from AD, or prone to develop allergic sensitization later in childhood43, exhibit a gut microbiota characterized by a reduced capacity to produce SCFA, particularly butyrate.
  • [1.38
    - #Roseburia intestinalis specifically able to metabolize the indigestible glycans β-mannans found in #Nuts into butyrate
  • [1.39] [#Behcet’s Disease] [#Lactate, #Lipopolysaccharide
    - These results showed that the gut microbiota in BD patients was enriched with lactic acid-producing bacteria, #Sulfate-reducing bacteria, and some opportunistic pathogens but lacked #Butyric acid-producing bacteria and methanogenic bacteria. - In mice receiving BD feces, it was observed that the intestinal barrier was disrupted with low expression of tight-junction proteins, leading to LPS release into circulation. - enrichment of #Bilophila, Alistipes, and #Paraprevotella was observed in the BD-recipient group.
  • [#Behcet’s Disease] - a similar effect was observed by the administration of #Eubacterium rectale (a kind of butyrate-producing bacteria) in BD mice, which can upregulate NK1.1+ cells and reduce serum IL-17 levels and disease severity scores, sharing the partial mechanism of #Colchicine, which is used to treat BD patients.
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - lower fecal butyrate and reduced counts of genera #Roseburia, #Romboutsia, and #Prevotella are related to depressive symptoms in PD patients. - Decreased levels of bacterially produced butyrate are related to epigenetic changes in leucocytes and neurons from PD patients and to the severity of their depressive symptoms.
  • [1.41] [#Neuromyelitis optica] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - lower faecal SCFA levels in these patients, and a negative correlation between #Acetate and butyrate levels and disease severity.
  • [1.42
    - butyrate treatment of epithelial cells has been shown to increase the production of IL-18 by GPR109a
  • - #Propionate and butyrate regulate gene expression by directly inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs)
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - butyrate treatment of epithelial cells boosted IL-18 production via a GPR109a-mediated pathway, promoting stomach homeostasis and defending against colorectal carcinogenesis
  • [#Metabolic associated fatty liver disease] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - SCFA levels were observed to be decreased in non-obese non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. - SCFAs help to inhibit the progress of NAFLD in a variety of ways. - As histone deacetylase inhibitors, #Propionate, #Acetate, and butyrate play an important role in NAFLD by decreasing chromatin-bound acetyl groups
  • [#Steatohepatitis] - #Acetate, #Propionate, and butyrate have been shown to alleviate hepatic steatosis by activating AMP-activated protein kinase, expressing a fatty-acid oxidation gene, and inhibiting macrophage proinflammatory activation
  • [1.43] [#Food Allergy
    - butyrate-producing #Clostridia, are depleted in food-allergic individuals. - butyrate-containing micelles, used in combination, restore a barrier-protective response in mice treated with either dextran sodium sulfate or antibiotics. Treatment with the micelles protects peanut-allergic mice from an anaphylactic reaction to peanut challenge and rescues their dysbiosis by increasing the abundance of #Clostridium cluster XIVa.
  • [1.44] [#Atopic Dermatitis
    - Supplement #Lactobacillus rhamnosus > increase butyrate production > reduce atopic symptoms
  • [1.45] [#Irritable bowel syndrome
    - a recent meta-analysis identified low levels of #Propionate and butyrate in feces from patients with IBS-C, as compared with healthy controls, and a higher proportion of butyrate in fecal samples of patients with IBS-D, as compared with controls
  • [#Irritable bowel syndrome] - #Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-1572 improves symptoms, modulates gut microbiota structure and function through the reduction of Rumicococcus with consequent increased levels of #Acetate and butyrate, and reduces intestinal immune activation in patients with IBS
  • [1.46] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - In case of antibiotics treatment it decreases the production of SCFA like butyrate, #Propionate and #Acetate which increases inflammation.
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - Butyrate, on the other hand, induces apoptosis in malignant epithelial cells that line the large intestine, lowering the risk of bowel cancer while also providing energy to gut cells.
  • - Genera which produce Butyrate were almost absent in #Colorectal cancer patient’s stool.
  • [1.47] [#Multiple Sclerosis
    - concentrations of fecal SCFAs (i.e., #Acetate, butyrate and #Propionate) were decreased in RRMS patients, compared to healthy controls
  • [1.48] [#Almond
    - There were no significant differences in abundance of fecal bifidobacteria following consumption of whole almonds, ground almonds or control . - Consumption of almonds (whole and ground pooled) resulted in higher butyrate (24.1 μmol/g) in comparison to control (18.2 μmol/g. - There was no effect of almonds on gut microbiota at the phylum level or diversity, gut transit time, stool consistency or gut symptoms.
  • [1.49
    - #Almond consumption increased the relative abundances of Lachnospira, Roseburia, and Dialister. - chopped almonds increased Lachnospira, Roseburia, and Oscillospira. - while whole almonds increased Dialister compared to control. - microbial fermentation of finely ground almonds has been shown to increase butyrate concentrations
  • - The gut microbiome produces metabolites that interact with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a key regulator of immune homoeostasis in the gut. - oral exposure to #Graphene oxide (GO) modulates the composition of the gut microbiome in adult zebrafish, with significant differences in wild-type versus ahr2-deficient animals. - GO was found to elicit AhR-dependent induction of cyp1a and homing of lck+ cells to the gut in germ-free zebrafish larvae when combined with the short-chain fatty acid butyrate.
  • [1.51] [#Sarcopenia
    - The genera Lachnospira, Fusicantenibacter, Roseburia, Eubacterium, and Lachnoclostridium—known butyrate producers—were significantly less abundant in Case and preCase subjects while Lactobacillus was more abundant. - Functional pathways underrepresented in Case subjects included numerous transporters and phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis suggesting that protein processing and nutrient transport may be impaired.
  • [1.52] [#Inulin-Type Fructans
    - Butyrate production may also be driven by bacteria unable to degrade inulin type fructans, but are capable of consuming #Acetate, producing butyrate, and utilising partially degraded carbohydrate from #Bifidobacteria.
  • [#Consuming resistant potato starch, #Culinary herbs and spices] - #Eubacterium hallii, a lactate utiliser and butyrate producing strain of bacteria grows poorly on potato starch in monoculture, but when combined with #Bifidobacterium adolescentis in coculture, it can utilise lactate produced by B. adolescentis for butyrate production.
  • - increase in butyrate producing microbes with #Turmeric.
  • [1.53] [#Gastric bypass surgery
    - Higher butyrate- and #Propionate-to-#Acetate ratios after the surgery compared to baseline indicates a shift in microbial metabolism from #Acetate production to butyrate and #Propionate production. - butyrate and #Propionate, which are known to induce satiety in animals and humans, were in greater concentrations in post-RYGB patients compared to nonsurgical controls.
  • - #Lactate availability is crucial for butyrate producers and, therefore, colon epithelium health
  • [1.54] [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Coprococcus etes
    - There are 36 different strains of butyrate-producing bacteria, and five of them are associated with increased insulin sensitivity: #Coprococcus etes, #Oscillibacter sp. CAG 241, #Alistipes finegoldi and #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. - The genus #Coprococcus was associated with higher insulin sensitivity and disposition index and a lower rate of dysglycemia.
  • - patients with #Prediabetes had significantly lower levels of butyrate bacteria than healthy people.
  • [1.55
    - n-butyrate protects against #Endometriosis disease progression in mouse model of this disease
  • [1.56
    - 5 weeks of #Exercise training in mice resulted in Gut Microbiota composition changes and an increase in cecal butyrate.
  • - Administration of butyrate promote NREM #Sleep in rats and mice. - #Sleep disruption can lead to changes in Gut Microbiota composition > tissue inflammation and decreased insulin sensitivity.
  • [1.57] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - The concentrations of these SCFAs in the colon are in the order of #Acetate > #Propionate > butyrate with molar ratios of approximately 60:20:20. - The total luminal SCFA concentrations in humans are 70–140 mmol/kg in the proximal colon, 20–70 mmol/kg in the distal colon, and 10–20 mmol/kg in the terminal ileum. - Approximately 95% of the produced SCFAs are absorbed by colonocytes, and the absorbed SCFAs contribute to 5%–15% of the caloric requirement for humans. - The presence of SCFAs is sensed by intestinal epithelial cells and immune cells by G-protein coupled receptors (GPRs), such as GPR41, GPR43, GPR109a, and Olf78. - SCFAs act as type I and II histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, with butyrate and #Propionate having higher HDAC-inhibiting activities compared to #Acetate. - The three major SCFAs promote the proliferation of normal crypt cells in the intestine of healthy individuals. - Triggering GPR43 and GPR41 dynamically regulates the gut barrier, inducing tight junction proteins at steady state but rapidly increasing the permeability during infection, perhaps, to facilitate acute immune responses.
  • - the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ can also serve as a receptor for butyrate in colonocytes.
  • - Butyrylated high-amylose maize resistant starch decreased red meat-derived pro-mutagenic adduct O6-methyl-2-deoxyguanosine and related CRC risk. - Certain butyrate-producing bacteria such as #Clostridium, #Ruminococcus, #Faecalibacterium spp., #Eubacterium spp., and #Roseburia, were found to decrease in relative frequency in CRC patients. - Butyrate inhibited the growth of CRC cells and induced their apoptosis in vitro at pharmacologically high concentrations.
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - CRC patients had lower stool concentrations of butyrate, while #Acetate concentrations were increased.
  • [#Colorectal cancer] [#Hydrogen sulfide] - H2S increased the in vitro proliferation of human cells obtained from mucosal biopsies. - Interestingly, this effect was inhibited by butyrate.
  • [1.58] [#Chronic fatigue syndrome
    - #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and #Eubacterium rectale, which are both recognized as abundant, health-promoting butyrate producers in the human gut, were reduced in ME/CFS. - deficient microbial capacity for butyrate synthesis. - The abundance of #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was inversely associated with fatigue severity.
  • [1.59
    - the #Lachnospiraceae family of anaerobic bacteria increased during #Fasting. - This family, in the order Clostridiales, promotes butryogenesis in the gut, a process that is associated with healthful metabolic and prolongevity effects.
  • [#Obesity] [#Human breast milk, #Infants] - HM butyrate concentrations were overall negatively associated with infant weight and adiposity, and associations were stronger at younger infant ages. - HM butyrate concentration was also inversely correlated with HM intake volume, supporting a possible mechanism whereby butyrate might reduce infant growth via appetite regulation and modulation of HM intake.
  • [1.61] [#Diabetes Type 2
    - A reduction in the #Lachnospira, #Roseburia, #Faecalibacterium and #Coprococcus genera in the T2D group. - These genera were butyrate producers. - The decrease of these genera favored #Obesity and the development of diseases.
  • [1.62
    - Both #Subdoligranulum and #Coprococcus are involved in the production of butyrate
  • - Butyrate can affect the gut-brain axis by enhancing the cholinergic neurons via epigenetic mechanisms and can cross the blood brain barrier and activate the vagus nerve and hypothalamus. - Sodium butyrate has shown anti-depressant effects in animal models of #Depression and mani
  • [1.63] [#Acetate, #Propionate, #Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - #Inulin and #Rice bran promoted the production of all three SCFA
  • - #Resistant starch was highly butyrogenic
  • [1.64
    - Butyrate is an agonist for GPR41, GPR43, or GPR109A, and may have anti-inflammatory effects through these receptors’ signaling pathways. - Butyrate serves as an epigenetic regulator, responding to environmental or pharmacological changes by inhibiting HDAC, up-regulating miR-7a-5p, and promoting histone butyrylation and autophagy processes.
  • [1.65
    - #Fasting > increased microbiome diversity and was specifically associated with upregulation of the #Clostridiales order–derived #Lachnospiraceae and #Ruminococcaceae bacterial families. - increased #Lachnospiraceae > Butyrate
  • [1.66
    Butyrate: fuel for colonocytes
  • [#Infants] Infant > Solid foods: Increased #Propionate and Butyrate
  • [1.67] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - butyrate can also be synthesized by the gut microbiota from #Acetate and #Lactate, although the last is not considered a SCFAs
  • [#Bipolar disorder] - Patients with BD show reductions in butyrate-producing bacteria which, being a central feature of MGB axis disruption.
  • [#Bipolar disorder] - butyrate has been demonstrated to revert manic-like behavior in rats and regulates the antioxidant enzyme activities, protecting the brain against oxidative damage
  • [#Depression] - self-reported depressive symptoms were positively associated with fecal #Acetate concentrations and negatively associated with butyrate and #Propionate levels.
  • [1.68] [#Clostridium perfringens
    - C. perfringens > production of exotoxin, #pfoA, has been shown to be regulated by short-chain fatty acids such as #Acetate and butyrate > inhibit #pfoA exotoxin.
  • [1.69] [#Crohn’s disease
    - Patients with CD that previously underwent ileocecal valve resection showed a decline in fecal abundance of #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and butyrate
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - SCFA such as butyrate, and #Secondary bile acids, might influence mitochondrial functions related to energy production, mitochondrial biogenesis, redox balance and inflammatory cascades, increased SIRT1 and FIAF activity, higher carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism
  • [1.71] [#Lipopolysaccharide
    - that repeated treatment of sodium butyrate attenuated LPS-induced depressive behaviors while simultaneously attenuating microglial activation in the hippocampus, possibly through epigenetic regulation of various promoter elements
  • - mono-colonization of germ-free mice with the butyrate producing #Clostridium tyrobutyricum elevated occludin expression in the frontal cortex and hippocampus while reducing BBB permeability.
  • [1.72] [#Alpha-synuclein
    - butyrate induces the breakdown of α-synuclein and enhances remyelination in mice cerebellar slice cultures
  • [#Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis] - the administration of butyrate in the ALS mice model (G93A) alleviated the disease symptoms.
  • - #Desulfovibrio and #Shigella showed a high score for the formation of butyrate, which is found in an elevated amount in neurodegenerative diseases.
  • - #Enterococcus and #Lactobacillus had the highest PS for butyrate formation through the fermentation of #Pyruvate.
  • - #Lachnospira was the only bacterial species which had a reduced population in the neurodegenerative diseased state but had a high PS for butyrate formation.
  • [1.73] [#Colorectal cancer] [#Porphyromonas gingivalis
    - In the intestine, oral-derived microbiotas create an inflammatory and immunosuppressive microenvironment suitable for tumorigenesis. It is detected the existence of oral-originated bacteria (#Fusobacterium nucleatum, P. gingivalis, and #Parvimonas micra) in CRC tissues.
  • [1.74] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - hemorrhagic transformation (HT), a life-threatening #Stroke complication in MCAO rats, correlated with inflammatory response and serum levels of SCFA. - total SCFA, specifically butyrate and #Valeric acid, was significantly lower in HT rats than in non-HT rats.
  • [1.75] [#Human milk oligosaccharides
    - HMOs > LNnT stimulated butyrate (linked to #Anaerobutyricum hallii in adults).
  • [#Bifidobacteria, #Bifidobacterium adolescentis, #Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum] [#Fructooligosaccharides, #Human milk oligosaccharides, #Inulin] - 2′FL/LNnT were bifidogenic for both age groups, 3′SL/6′SL and FOS/IN were exclusively bifidogenic for children and adults, respectively. - 3′SL/6′SL stimulated B. pseudocatenulatum (abundant in children), FOS/IN enhanced B. adolescentis (abundant in adults). - increased #Acetate, #Propionate and butyrate (only in adults) with product- and age-dependent differences.
  • [1.76
    - Lack of butyrate signaling results in #Nitrate electron acceptors being released into the colon, which facultative anaerobes can also use for cell respiration, breaking down carbohydrates into carbon dioxide rather than fermenting them.
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - Analogous to the activity of #Niacin, butyrate activates GPR109A to suppress colonic inflammation and colon cancer development
  • [#Diabetes Type 2, #Obesity] - Microbial homeostasis is normally maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). - PPAR-γ is a nuclear receptor activated by butyrate and other ligands, is found in adipocytes and colonocytes, and is responsible for activating genes involved in #Glucose and lipid metabolism.
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Lactic acid] - Patients with IBD have lower fecal levels of #Acetate, #Propionate and butyrate, and higher levels of lactic and #Pyruvic acids than healthy individuals
  • [1.77] [#Amedibacterium Intestinale
    - #Agavins (AG), either alone or combined with cranberry #Polyphenols (CP+AG), mainly stimulated the glycan-degrading bacteria Muribaculum intestinale, #Faecalibaculum rodentium, #Bacteroides uniformis, and #Bacteroides acidifaciens. - This increase of glycan-degrading bacteria was consistent with a significantly increased level of butyrate in obese mice receiving AG,
  • [1.78] [#Lipopolysaccharide
    - Butyrate nourishes the colonocytes and helps preserve gut barrier function (tight junction proteins expression and mucus production), meanwhile reducing LPS circulation.
  • [1.79] [#Alzheimer’s disease, #Mild Cognitive Impairment] [#Aging, #Mediterranean Ketogen Diet
    - feeding modified Mediterranean-ketogenic diet (MMKD) increased production of butyrate, which was associated with reduced AD markers in the cerebrospinal fluid of older adults with MCI
  • - Butyrate administration to animals has shown protective effects against vascular #Dementia, #Cognitive impairment, and against metabolic risk factors for cognitive decline and #Dementia
  • [#Mild Cognitive Impairment] - the abundance of butyrate producing bacteria such as #Lachnospiraceae family, #Subdoligranulum sp., #Roseburia intestinalis, and #Roseburia hominis were reduced in the gut of MCI participants compared to cognitively healthy controls.
  • [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Glucose] - activation of GPR41 by #Propionate or butyrate can induce both GLP-1 and peptide YY secretion from L cells in the small intestine.
  • [1.81
    - Butyrate plays important roles in host energy balance by stimulating the release of satiety hormones such as GLP-1.
  • - #Lachnospira pectinoschiza, #Eubacterium eligans, and likely the uncharacterized #Oscillibacter are butyrate producers
  • [1.82] [#Whole grains
    - Several butyrate-producers (e.g., #Faecalibacterium, #Roseburia, Butyriciococcus) were inversely associated with colonic transit time and/or faecal pH, while the mucin-degraders #Akkermansia and #Ruminococcaceae showed the opposite association.
  • [#Whole grains] - The whole-grain diet increased the levels of faecal butyrate and caproate compared to the refined-grain diet.
  • [1.83] [#Acute lymphoblastic leukemia] [#Bacteroides ovatus, #Pseudomonas aurantiaca, #Roseburia intestinalis, #Roseburia inulinivorans
    - #Children with ALL exhibit reduced relative abundance of both butyrate-producing species (#Roseburia faecis, R. intestinalis, R. inulinivorans, #Anaerostipes hardus, #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, #Eubacterium ramulus) and #Acetate-producing species (#Prevotella maculosa, P. aurantiaca, #Bacteroides uniformis, B. ovatus)
  • - delayed maturation of the gut microbiome (characterized by reduced relative abundance of the genera #Roseburia, #Dialister, #Prevotella, #Faecalibacterium and #Blautia and increased abundance of #Enterococcus), as well as reduced stool levels of butyrate by the age of 12 months, is associated with aberrant immune responses and an increased risk of #Asthma diagnosis by the age of 5 years
  • [1.84
    - short- and long-term myalgic encephalomyelitis/#Chronic fatigue syndrome > reduced microbial butyrate biosynthesis and a reduction in plasma butyrate, #Bile Acids, and #Benzoate.
  • [1.85] [#Hypertension
    - butyrate can enter the bloodstream and exert a potent hypotensive effect by preventing vascular inflammation. - It can also act on vagal afferent neurons and the central nervous system to affect blood pressure.
  • - #Faecalibacterium is the most potent butyrate-producing bacteria and the biomarker most closely associated with #Hypertension prevention.
  • [1.86] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - #Methanobrevibacter smithii was associated with preclinical AD and was negatively correlated with fecal concentrations of butyrate, a SCFA that attenuated Aβ plaque deposition and neuroinflammation in a mouse model of AD.
  • [1.87
    - #Cashew fibers exhibit higher butyrate formation compared to others.
  • [1.88] [#Blood Brain Barrier Integrity
    - sodium butyrate administration exhibited an alleviating effect on BBB integrity.
  • [#High Fat Diet] - the levels of butyrate and #Propionate show obvious daily oscillations. Moreover, these oscillations are lost under high-fat diets.
  • - especially in #Crohn’s disease, is the decreased abundance of #Firmicutes bacteria belonging to two families that are important functional members of the human gut microbiota─#Ruminococcaceae and #Lachnospiraceae─to which most butyrate-producing bacteria in the human gut belong.
  • [1.89] [#Bacteroides vulgatus] [#carrot-derived rhamnogalacturonan I] [#Carrot
    - cRG-I supplementation (already at an HED of 0.3 g/d) lowered interpersonal compositional differences due to the selective stimulation of taxa that were consistently present among human adults, including OTUs related to #Bacteroides dorei/vulgatus and #Bifidobacterium longum (suspected keystone species), #Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, #Bifidobacterium adolescentis and butyrate-producing taxa such as #Blautia sp., #Anaerobutyricum hallii, and #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii.
  • - #Lachnospiraceae is a beneficial butyrate-producing bacterium
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - butyrate can protect against MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6,-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD) neurotoxicity by preventing dopaminergic neuronal loss and #Dopamine depletion, reducing gliosis proliferation in SN and up-regulating neurotrophic factors.
  • [1.91] [#Blood Brain Barrier Integrity] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - Some SCFAs such as butyrate, #Propionate and #Acetate can cross the BBB probably through the monocarboxylate transport system generating a feedback inhibition on brain uptake.
  • [1.92] [#Vitamin B12
    - B12 supplementation may boost the production of protective butyrate
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - in PD > actate might be further metabolized by other bacteria (e.g., non-butyrate-producing #Lactate-utilizing bacteria) and finally convert to the products that might be detrimental to gut health (e.g., disrupt gut barrier)
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - In prodromal PD patients, the overall microbiota composition shifted closely to early PD, with depletion of butyrate-producing bacteria, and overabundance of pro-inflammatory #Collinsella, #Desulfovibrio, and #Oscillospiraceae UCG-005.
  • [1.93] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - ignificant increases in the SCFA butyrate and several VOCs after #Almond consumption
  • [1.94
    - Butyrate is associated with protection against #Graft-Versus-Host Disease
  • [1.95
    - #Fusobacterium, which belongs to the #Fusobacteria phylum, was also identified as one of the potential butyrate producers, which could modulate the gut microbiota and even modify anti-inflammatory, tumor-fighting, and metabolic pathways
  • [#Serum CRP] - As a butyrate-producing bacteria, #Butyricicoccus was positively correlated with anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, #IL-10, and IL-11. - The negative association between CRP and #Butyricicoccus abundance may reflect an imbalance between pro- and anti- inflammatory reactions.
  • [1.96] [#High Fat Diet
    - HFD promotes #Firmicutes and reduces #Bacteroidetes, i.e., high #Firmicutes/#Bacteroidetes ratio. - HFD enhances the proportion of butyrate-producing bacteria. While elevated #Firmicutes/#Bacteroidetes ratio and butyrate-producing bacteria are generally linked to a healthful status
  • [#High Fat Diet] - Acsm3 is an important enzyme in butyrate metabolism, as it activates medium-chain fatty acids towards mitochondrial β-oxidation. - Downregulated Acsm3 in HFD sciatic nerve may potentially be a compensatory mechanism to slow butyrate metabolism in attempts to maintain nerve butyrate levels
  • [#High Fat Diet] - (#Lachnospiraceae, #Oscillospiraceae, and #Clostridiaceae) produce butyrate and thus also likely contribute to the observed increase in butyrate-producing bacteria in HFD mice.
  • [1.97] [#Hypertension] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - Blood pressure is a strong AF risk factor. - Bacteria of the genus #Odoribacter odproduce the SCFA acid butyrate, a signalling molecule in blood pressure control. - SCFAs interact with G-protein coupled receptor pathways including renin secretion and sympathetic activation,which are central to blood pressure regulation.
  • [1.98
    - #Behcet’s Disease > Stool samples were enriched with #Parabacteroides, sulphate-reducing bacteria #Bilophila and #Desulfovibrionaceae species. In addition, it was also noted that butyrate-producing bacteria #Clostridium and methanogens were reduced. - Transplantation of BD faeces in mice illustrated remarkable results in which gut integrity was breached due to decreased expression of tight junctions, with the subsequent effects of experimental uveitis.
  • - #Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKH) > In this uveitis syndrome, a study demonstrated heightened levels of gram-negative bacteria, eg, #Bacteroides and #Paraprevotella, in patients’ stools with a decrease in butyrate-producing bacteria.
  • [1.99] [#Lacto-fermented vegetables
    - LFV consumption had greater effects on the faecal metabolome, with higher abundances of butyrate, #Acetate, and #Valerate and significantly greater metabolome diversity.
  • - Butyrate can reduce #Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory activity by maintaining the integrity of the gut barrier and limiting the translocation of bacteria and bacterial components such as #Lipopolysaccharide into the systemic circulation
  • [#Polycystic ovary syndrome] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - Butylated #Starch could be metabolized by the gut microbiota to produce SCFAs, which could stimulate the peptide-#Tyrosine-#Tyrosine secretion and the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis to alleviate PCOS.
  • [1.101
    - Butyrate biosynthesis is regulated by different metabolic pathways, with either #Acetate or #Propionate as precursors, and is pH-sensitive, with high production rates observed at low colonic pH values
  • - butyrate production is enhanced in the presence of #Firmicutes, while #Bacteroidota favor #Acetate and #Propionate production
  • - #Lentils (LEN) and #Chickpeas (CKP) increase butyrate, while #Inulin (INU) promotes #Propionate. - #Bile Acids and #Cholesterol are reduced in #Prebiotic groups along with suppressed #Choline-to-trimethylamine conversion by LEN and CKP
  • - relatively higher #Lactate levels, coupled with #Firmicutes abundance in LEN, favored butyrate production.
  • [1.102] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - Most #Acetate and #Propionate are absorbed into circulation, while butyrate is the primary energy source for intestinal epithelial cells. - SCFA-sensitive receptors are expressed in many cell types throughout the body, including immune cells, adipose tissue, cardiac tissue, skeletal muscle, and neurons. - SCFAs, particularly #Propionate and #Acetate, have the potential for broad action in the host, including metabolism, cell differentiation and proliferation, gene regulation, protein methylation, and phosphorylation.
  • - Butyrate has been shown in vitro to reduce intestinal permeability and stimulate mucus production to strengthen the epithelial barrier. - Butyrate can also modulate antimicrobial peptide secretion in the intestinal epithelium
  • - #Oat supplementation increased butyrate concentrations in the intestine, which was associated with improved lipid metabolism, reduced #Oxidative stress, and attenuated inflammatory responses
  • - butyrate may also suppress #Cancer cell expansion.
  • [#Diabetes Type 2] - Butyrate has also been considered as a therapeutic target for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes
  • [1.103] [#Prostate cancer] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - FMT with CRPC patients’ fecal suspension > increase SCFAs-producing gut microbiotas such as #Ruminococcus, #Alistipes, Phascolarctobaterium in TRAMP, and correspondingly raised their gut SCFAs (#Acetate and #butyrate) levels.
  • [1.104] [#Celiac Disease
    - The abnormal butyrate production by microbiome is recognised as a cause of higher expression of non-functional form of FOXP3, which is associated with an enlarged risk of autoimmunity
  • [1.105] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - butyrate, #Propionate and physiologically relevant SCFA mix of #Acetate, butyrate and #Propionate did inhibit focal cytokine production by macrophages in the presence of PRR stimulation, but timing is important! - The SCFA anti-inflammatory effect was apparent if their addition occurred at the same time as PRR activation. - Pre-treatment of macrophages with SCFA at least 1 hour before PRR stimulation had a pro-inflammatory effect.
  • [1.106] [#Clostridiales XIV, #Clostridium cluster IV
    - #Walnut consumption at 42 g/day, increased butyrate-producing #Clostridium clusters XIV and IV including, #Faecalibacterium, #Roseburia, while lowering the relative abundance of #Ruminococcus, #Dorea, Oscilllo, #Bifidobacteria.
  • [#Resistant starch] - The resistant starches increased butyrate
  • [#Clostridiales XIV] - #Pectin, which make up 35% of fruit fibre cell wall, increases butyrate-producing species such as Clostridium cluster XIV
  • [1.107] [#Prostate cancer
    - In LNCaP and LAPC4 PCA cells, sodium butyrate decreases the expression of the AR, which plays a crucial role in developing and spreading PCA.
  • [1.108] [#Major depressive disorder] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - SCFAs were reported to be depleted in patients with MDD,2,32 while their administration resulted in antidepressant effects by ameliorating #Depression-related intestinal permeability and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, in particular butyrate
  • [1.109] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - Sodium butyrate is an SCFA which can act via GPCRs to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC), leading to reduced neuronal death and #Oxidative stress. - the inhibition of HDAC by sodium butyrate was also shown to improve hearing in guinea pigs previously impacted by the antibiotic gentamycin
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - higher abundance of #Coprococcus eutactus, a producer of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, was associated with better language outcomes
  • [#Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] - The ADHD group showed significantly lower concentrations of fecal #Acetate and butyrate
  • [1.111] [#Bacteroides
    - gut pH changes from 6.5 to 5.5 can contribute to a change in the composition and population of the gut microbiota. - The pH alteration can change the population of acid-sensitive species, such as Bacteroids, and promote butyrate formation by #Firmicutes. - This process is called butyrogenic effect.
  • [1.112] [#Anaerostipes hadrus, #Blautia wexlerae, #Eubacterium hallii, #Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - The depleted bacterial populations are known short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers, notably the butyrate producers A. hadrus, E. hallii, and F. saccharivorans and the #Acetate producer B. wexlerae - depletion of butyrate in #Allergy-prone participants significant associations between A. hadrus and F. saccharivorans respective relative abundance and butyrate concentration.
  • [1.113
    - sodium butyrate (NaB) inhibits NF-κB activation and restores the production of tight junction proteins #ZO-1 and #Claudin-1 to block the vicious cycle of cytokine storms, improve intestinal barrier function, and increase the survival rate.
  • [1.114] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - a large number of gut bacteria consume #Uric acid anaerobically, converting it to either #Xanthine or #Lactate and the short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), #Acetate and butyrate.
  • [1.115] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which originate from the fermentation of dietary fibers by the microbiota, can activate #AHR signaling in reporter cell lines
  • [1.116
    - Butyrate is produced by cross-feeding interactions between #Acetate-producing #Bifidobacterium spp. and #Acetate-utilizing #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
  • - Butyrate has been shown to reduce gut inflammation and ameliorate symptoms in a dose-dependent manner. - Butyrate at 20 mg/kg/day or lower doses was found to have no significant effect, while at 100 mg/kg, it was effective against inflammation in mic. - oral supplementation of sodium butyrate at 100 mg/kg of body weight daily decreased colitis scores, prevented body weight loss, and induced histone H3 acetylation in colonic mucosa in mouse models of acute and chronic colitis. - butyrate treatment restored the microbial community diversity and reduced microbiota dysbiosis in gut inflammation. - Butyrate predominantly presents in the anionic form in the colon due to colonic luminal pH conditions. Thus, it requires carrier-mediated transportation for cellular entry. - butyrate was found to induce T cell-independent IgA secretion in the colon via activation of GPR41 (free fatty acid receptor 3, FFAR3) and GPR109A (hydrocarboxylic acid receptor 2, HCAR2), and inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) to restore epithelial barrier function under inflammatory conditions. - high concentrations of butyrate may induce apoptosis of epithelial cells and interrupt barrier function. - As orally supplemented butyrate is rapidly absorbed in the duodenum, the majority of the orally administered butyrate would not reach the colon.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - only 2% of butyrate enters systemic circulation, being utilized by other tissues and cells. - The remaining SCFAs, including butyrate, are excreted through the lungs and urine.
  • [#Clostridium cluster IV, #Clostridium clusters XIVa] - The predominant butyrogenic bacterial species, including #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, #Clostridium spp., #Eubacterium spp., and #Roseburia spp., are from two clusters (#Clostridium clusters IV and XIVa) in the #Firmicutes phylum and the #Clostridiales order
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - Combination of SCFAs, mainly #Acetate, #Propionate, and butyrate, showed increased effects against #Colitis
  • - A mixture of butyrate, Pistacia atlantica, and #Lactobacillus casei or butyrate, #Lactobacillus casei, and L-carnitin showed synergistic effects than a single agent in a TNBS-induced rat #Colitis model
  • - enteric-coated butyrate tablets administration effectively reduced ileocaecal inflammation and maintained clinical remission in #Crohn’s disease patients.
  • [#Ulcerative Colitis] - Butyrate enema showed inhibition of NF-κB activation in the lamina propria macrophages of UC patients, and it also reduced disease activity
  • [1.117] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - The microbiome-derived metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), e.g., #Acetate, #Propionate, and butyrate are the commonly identified signaling metabolites that affect microglia.
  • [#Potasium] - #Propionate and butyrate exert a distinct influence on the intracellular K+ levels
  • [1.118] [#Parkinson’s Disease
    - butyrate exerts protective effects against PD in mice via stimulation of glucagon like peptide-1
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - PD > low SCFAs are significantly associated with poor cognition and low BMI; lower butyrate levels correlate with worse postural instability-gait disorder scores
  • [1.119] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - #Kefir increased catalase and superoxide dismutase (colon), and SCFAs in feces (butyrate), and in the brain (butyrate and #Propionate).
  • - #Kefir reduced triglycerides, #Uric acid, and affected the microbiome of animals increasing fecal butyrate-producing bacteria (#Lachnospiraceae and #Lachnoclostridium).
  • [#Lachnospiraceae] [#Fiber-free diet] - The lack of dietary fiber > reduced abundances of the butyrate-producing genera Lachnospiraceaea NK4A136 and #Roseburia. Additionally, #Lactobacillus, which was also reduced in Fibre deprived mice
  • [1.121] [#Eubacterium limosum, #Roseomonas mucosa
    - E. limosum can reduce #Colitis, and the metabolite butyrate can enhance the integrity of the mucosa and show anti-inflammatory regulation on the intestinal mucosal system through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)
  • [#Eubacterium limosum] [#Osteopontin] - At 3 months, OPN was positively correlated with E. limosum, which can produce butyrate along with #Acetate, as the main fertilization end-product from #Methanol.
  • [1.122
    - #Peanut #Allergy-bound #Children had different abundance trajectories of #Clostridium sensu stricto 1 sp. and #Bifidobacterium sp. , with butyrate and #Isovalerate decreasing over time.
  • - Metabolites associated with #Peanut #Allergy development clustered within the #Histidine metabolism pathway. - Positive correlations between microbiota, butyrate, and #Isovalerate and negative correlations with #Histamine marked the #Peanut #Allergy-free network.
  • [1.123] [#Omega 3
    - omega-3 rich diet has been shown to result in a significant increase in #Subdoligranulum, along with other butyrate producers like #Anaerostipes, #Coprococcus, and #Roseburia.
  • - Butyrate derived from microbes can suppress the development of autoimmune arthritis by enhancing follicular regulatory T cells that suppress autoantibody production in systemic lymphoid tissue and are negatively associated with disease severity,
  • [#Depression] - #Subdoligranulum, a known butyrate producer, has also been negatively associated with depressive symptoms in several studies.
  • [1.124] [#Colorectal cancer
    - butyrate and #Propionate directly upregulate genes involved in cytokine production, antigen processing and MHCI generation in CRC cells, all of which contribute to CD8+ T cell activation. - The activated CD8+ T cells secrete high amounts of IFNγ which then feeds back on the cancer cells to further upregulate CRC cell MHCI, further increasing their capacity to activate CD8+ T cells. - butyrate and #Propionate induced greater DNA damage in the DNA repair deficient MSI CRC cells, which are typically quite immunogenic.
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - CRC patient’s intestinal microbiome > cancer is often associated with an increase of the major butyrate producing taxa, #Firmicutes, coupled with decreased levels of #Proteobacteria
  • [1.125] [#Hydrogen sulfide
    - H2S can inhibit mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase, decrease butyrate oxidation, and act on disulfide bonds in mucin to facilitate mucin degradation
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - GPR109a-butyrate signaling in the colon not only protects the host from colonic inflammation but also from colon cancer
  • [#Diabetes Type 2] - in T2DM patients > #Bifidobacterium, #Lactobacillus, #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, and butyrate-creating bacteria such as #Roseburia intestinalis and F. prausnitzii abundance decreased
  • [1.126] [#Fasting
    - #Coprococcus produce butyrate. - genera #Coprococcus significantly decreased after RIF. - #Coprococcus experienced a decrease during starvation, but later on, they increased during the refeeding
  • [#Obesity] - weight loss is associated with reduced butyrate production by specific gut microbiota bacteria, such as the #Lactobacillus and #Bifidobacterium genera belonging to the #Firmicutes phylum
  • [1.127] [#Parkinson’s Disease] [#Coprococcus catus, #Coprococcus comes
    - all #Coprococcus members produce butyrate or via independent mechanisms, such as the potential of C. catus and C. comes to synthesise #DOPAC, a metabolite implicated in PD.
  • [1.128] [#Colorectal cancer] [#Porphyromonas gingivalis
    - In CRC, invasive P. gingivalis is enriched and correlated with higher levels of butyrate, possibly inducing SASP
  • [1.129
    - The inhibitory effect of butyrate on the maturation and differentiation of macrophage cells leads to a reduction in their phagocytic activity. It is probable that this phenomenon is attributed to the inhibitory role of butyrate.
  • - treatment with butyrate resulted in a decrease in the growth of both mouse and human endometriotic lesions
  • - low concentrations of #Butyric acid showed increased #Progesterone secretion, while higher butyrate concentrations significantly inhibited the #Progesterone secretion via the cAMP signaling pathway
  • [1.131] [#Eggerthella lenta
    - Increasing abundance of E. lenta via gavage led to alterations in metabolic profile with reduced butyrate production. - Reduction in butyrate producing taxa, #Burtyrivibrio, after E. lenta treatment could be one of the reasons for reduced gut butyrate levels.
  • [#Rheumatoid Arthritis] - Butyrate also encourages gut homeostasis by stimulating growth of beneficial commensals and suppressing TNF-α production through nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibition in patients with RA
  • [1.132] [#Hypertension
    - butyrate significantly reduces the effects of #Lipopolysaccharide, thereby promoting macrophage 1 polarization and inhibiting macrophage 2 polarization, ultimately leading to a reduction in blood pressure
  • [#Preeclamsia] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - In the late trimester, the relative abundance of #Anaerovibrio was significantly decreased in PE patients, which is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate-producing bacteria.
  • [#Preeclamsia] - butyrate promotes the effect on macrophage autophagy by decreasing autophagy receptors like P62 level and elevating LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, thus alleviating PE symptoms in rats.
  • [1.133] [#Hydrogen sulfide
    - butyrate is a major energy source in colonocytes, and H2S is known to inhibit beta-oxidation of butyrate
  • - Butyrate inhibits glycolysis and switches cell metabolism toward gluconeogenic conditions, thus promoting #Lactate utilization
  • - Treatment of human colon mucosal epithelial cells (NCM460) with sodium butyrate (SB) increased mitochondrial respiration (i.e., increased maximal respiration, spare capacity, and OxPhos-dependent ATP production) and expression of genes involved in mitochondrial bioenergetics (TFAM), complex I (NDUFA1, NDUFA4, and NDUFA6), complex IV (COX6A1), and complex V (ATP5E and ATP8). - SB treatment promoted barrier integrity by increasing tight junction gene (#Zonulin-1 and #Occludin) expression.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - modulatory effects of SCFAs (primarily butyrate) on mitochondrial metabolism have been reported in macrophages, B cells, and innate lymphoid cells
  • [1.134
    - butyrate is considered to be a more potent HDAC inhibitor compared to #Acetate
  • - butyrate significantly reduced proliferation of hgMVECs at every concentration tested
  • - butyrate can be due to its ability to restore NO production through GPR41/43 activation
  • - Butyrate is a well-known and potent histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and in this way, it can influence the expression of genes, also of the ones involved in cellular proliferation. - butyrate decreases the expression of the proliferative genes TES and PGF through HDC inhibition
  • - butyrate at 250 μM and at 500 μM increased the expression of both #Claudin-5 (Figure 2E,F) and VE-cadherin
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - Butyrate is also able to counteract the pro-inflammatory activity of gut-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS)
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - butyrate administration might also have a long-term positive effect since it is able to reshape the gut microbiota composition and progressively boost and replenish SCFAs bacteria
  • [#Chronic kidney disease] - butyrate can protect glomerular endothelial cells against mitochondrial dysfunction.
  • [#Chronic kidney disease] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - fecal and serum SCFAs are remarkably higher in healthy controls than in patients affected by CKD. - the progression of CKD negatively correlates with the amount of butyrate detected in the serum of the patients. - butyrate supplementation might have potential beneficial effects on kidney function
  • [#Diabetes Type 1, #Diabetes Type 2] - Diabetes > butyrate can reduce proliferation of glomerular endothelial cells and potentially keep proliferation under control.
  • [#Diabetes Type 1, #Diabetes Type 2] - butyrate can reduce #Oxidative stress by improving mitochondrial function in STZ-treated pancreatic β-cells and neuronal cells.
  • [1.135] [#Constipation
    - Butyrate-producing microbial species were depleted in those with less frequent Bowel Movement and worse cognition, while a higher abundance of pro-inflammatory species was associated with BM frequency of ≥twice/day and worse cognition.
  • [1.136] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - AD > lower proportion of bacteria with the potential to synthetize butyrate, a microbial metabolite negatively associated with cortical #Amyloid accumulation.
  • [1.137] [#Exercise training
    - Chronic exercisers have a greater abundance of the #Lachnospiraceae and #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, major butyrate producers.
  • [#Exercise training] - Abundance of #Lachnospiraceae (#Roseburia and #Lachnospira) has been positively correlated with VO2max and fecal butyrate after 2 weeks of high-intensity interval training.
  • [1.138] [#Consuming resistant potato starch, #Resistant starch
    - fecal butyrate levels were significantly higher when participants were on RPS than when they were not
  • [1.139] [#Plant Microbiome
    - Genes encoding #Propionate CoA-transferase and butyrate kinase that are involved in #Propionate and butyrate biosynthesis, respectively, were only detected in a small number of MAGs that belong to #Burkholderiales and #Rhizobiales.
  • [#Anxiety] - low doses of butyrate produce positive effects on the brain and behavior, while high doses induce a stress-like response
  • - butyrate, seem to stimulate the vagus nerve
  • [1.141] [#Kidney stone
    - Butyrate enhances tight junction assembly, preventing intestinal permeability and potentially decreasing passive paracellular #oxalate uptake . - It may also have a role in active transcellular uptake mechanisms by modulating the expression of the #oxalate transporter SLC26A6, and even decreasing crystal formation in the kidney through immune modulation
  • [1.142] [#Cognitive impairment] [#Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans
    - butyrate-producing F. saccharivorans is among the 15% most important predictors for both the gross motor subscale and three bilateral components of the COC (left and right pars orbitalis, pars opercularis and pars triangularis).
  • [1.143] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - increased levels of total SCFAs and Butyrate in mice that had received the #Beta-glucan intervention.
  • [1.144] [#mRNA vaccine
    - Certain butyrate producers, such as #Lachnospira, #Catenibacterium, and #Faecalibacterium, were enriched in individuals with higher immunogenic responses to the BNT162b2 vaccine
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - #Lachnospiraceae UCG-003 can potentially protect against colon cancer by butyrate production
  • [1.145] [#Bacteroides-Prevotella group, #Ruminococcus gauvreauii
    - marked reduction in butyrate-producing bacterial genera, such as #Coprococcus, and #Subdoligranulum, in both the ileum and colon; #Faecalibacterium in colon; and [#Ruminococcus] gauvreauii group in fecal samples from People living with HIV (PLWH)
  • - Butyrate, recognized as an HDAC inhibitor (HDACi), has strong anti-inflammatory properties, which helps to maintain the intestinal barrier’s integrity
  • [1.146] [#Kidney stone, #Urinary stone disease, #Urolithiasis
    - no differences in the abundance of genes associated with known #oxalate degradation pathways, supporting the notion that dysfunction in other metabolic pathways plays a role in KSD. - KSD > decreased abundance of key enzymes involved in butyrate biosynthesis in patient intestinal microbiomes.
  • [#Kidney stone] - the majority of genes significantly enriched in non-stone formers are affiliated with #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a major butyrate producer and the majority of abundant genes mapped back to F. prausnitzii, #Alistipes spp., and #Akkermansia muciniphila.
  • [1.147] [#High Fat Diet
    - #Ruminococcaceae (order Clostridiales) that are prominent producers of butyrate, decreased in relative abundance with a high-fat diet. - This decrease is particularly significant because #Ruminococcaceae, making up ≈20% of gut bacteria in chow-fed OSA rats, decreased to ≈10% in high-fat OSA rats . Members of the order Clostridiales, other than #Ruminococcaceae, also significantly decreased with high-fat diet.

References Notes


[  ]

Common References


MetaBiom only uses strictly necessary session cookies to give you the best possible experience on the website. By selecting "Accept essential cookies" you agree to the use of these cookies.