[1.55] -Increased abundance of Akkermansia and Holdemania were found to be predictive of MS.
- Akkermansia showed negative associations with the bile acid components taurocholate, bile acid glycocholate and fatty acid anions 3-hydroxyoctanoate and caproate.
- The identification of bile acids associated with a number of our taxa is consistent with several studies showing an integral role of the gut bile acid pool as a modulator of host immune response and inflammation
[1.51] - Akkermansia spp can reduce inflammation by a number of different mechanisms such as reducing plasma level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), reducing the expression of inflammatory genes, and reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, IL-23, IL-8, TNF-α as well as increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-12.
- While low levels of Akkermansia were found in obesity and type-2 diabetes mouse models, exogenous administration of Akkermansia increased the control of gut inflammation and permeability by regulating tight-junction-related proteins, and thickening the intestinal mucous layer.
[#High-fat diet] - The population of Akkermansia in the gut is negatively modulated by the fat content of the consumed diet.
[#Diabetes Type 2] - The commonly used diabetes treatment #Metformin increase Akkermansia spp. abundance, and to significantly improve glucose metabolism in high-fat diet fed mice while also increasing the number of mucin-producing goblet cells.
[1.46] [#Obesity (Diet induced)] [#Breast feeding] - Infants fed with breast milk rich in #Betaine showed reduced growth rates after birth.
- Experiments in mice showed that giving #Betaine to female mice improved blood sugar metabolism and lowered fat tissue in breastfeeding offspring.
- When breast-fed with milk rich in #Betaine, both mouse pups and human infants had higher amounts of Akkermansia bacteria in their guts.
- Low levels of maternal #Betaine during pregnancy are linked to increased infant weight at birth.
- Maternal #Betaine supplementation resulted in lower fetal weight in a mouse study.
[1.56] [#Diabetes Type 2] - In a mouse model oral administration of Akkermansia activated toll-like receptor 2, increased the expression of epithelial tight-junction proteins, and reversed high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance
- Akkermansia was the only genus that was underrepresented in patients with elevated HbA1c
[1.58] [#Parkinson’s Disease] - increased relative abundance of the Akkermansia genera over time among individuals with PD across multiple geographic locations (Finland, Germany, Japan, Russia, and United States)
- an increase in the relative abundance of genus Akkermansia, a genus of mucin-metabolizing bacteria that are commonly elevated among individuals with PD, in individuals with RBD (REM sleep behavior disorder)
[1.19] [#Parkinson’s Disease] - Mucin degrading genus Akkermansia of the phylum #Verrucomicrobia has been widely reported to be significantly abundant in PD by most studies. Akkermansia and Christensenellaceae may symbiotically play a role in PD pathology and progression
[#Parkinson’s Disease] - Intestinal mucus layer is rich in protein mucin. Akkermansia utilises mucin as a nutritional source and degrades it into SCFA #Acetate, which acts as a substrate for other beneficial bacteria to produce butyrate, an energy source for the intestinal epithelial cells.
- Akkermansia is a symbiont that degrades mucin and encourages cells to produce more mucin.
- A compensatory effect of richness in Akkermansia is possibly due to depleting cellulose-degrading bacteria in the PD gut
[1.54] - Decreases in SCFA-producing bacteria, specifically belonging to Akkermansia and #Faecalibacterium genera, have also been detected in mice subject to 7-day paradoxical #Sleep Deprivation and 3-day continuous #Sleep Deprivation.
- Decreases in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera have been seen in mice subject to 5 days of sleep disruption.
- #Sleep Deprivation–induced dysbiosis in mice resulted in increased intestinal permeability and reduced abundance of SCFAs, features that were both reversed following subsequent administration of #Lactobacillus plantarum.
- patients with psoriasis report a relative reduction in intestinal abundance of Akkermansia, #Ruminococcus, or #Faecalibacterium genera, which are all comprised of mucin-degrading SCFA-producing commensals.
[1.59] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] - studies have demonstrated striking differences between luminal and mucosal samples within the colon itself, specifically regarding mucosa-associated bacteria such as #Bifidobacterium, #Lactobacillus, and Akkermansia.
- the microbial community composition is different between ileal luminal samples from colonic and fecal samples, as well along the length of the colon itself.