Disease ⇒ Cancer {40000133}

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Type:
Disease
Parent:[  ]
Definition:
Cancer

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Initialisation date:
2020-09-06
Other Terms:[  ]

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MedDra ID:[  ]
MedDra Level:[  ]
ICD:[  ]
Category:
Oncology
Zone:[  ]
Mechanism:[  ]

Notes:


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Shared Reference Notes


  • [1.1] [#Lactobacillus
    - Smectite clay promotes lactic acid bacteria (LABs) to form biofilms on its surface - Smectite with LABs inhibits tumor growth in mice - Smectite with LABs enhances anti-cancer chemo/immunotherapy in mice - Smectite with LABs activates dendritic cells via TLR2 signaling
  • [1.2
    - #kynurenine—a tryptophan metabolite that blocks antitumour immunity—inhibits T cell proliferation in a manner that can be rescued by BH4.
  • - The enzyme co-factor #Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is involved in the production of monoamine neurotransmitters, the generation of nitric oxide, and pain. - Administration of BH4 to mice markedly reduces tumour growth and expands the population of intratumoral effector T cells.
  • [1.3
    - Disruption of the microbiome leads to changes in intestinal barrier function, which could lead to bacterial translocation and result in chronic inflammation. - Chronic inflammation over the years results in altered immune responses and increases risk of tumor formation and progression.
  • - #Bifidobacterium is associated with antitumor effects, and oral administration of #Bifidobacterium alone improved tumor control to the same degree as PD-L1 antibody therapy while combination treatment nearly abolished tumor growth in mice.
  • [1.4
    - #IL-15 signaling is required for NK cell proliferation, survival, and anti-tumor function in the tumor microenvironment .
  • [1.5
    - #Clostridium spp. destroy tumors by secreting exotoxins that damage the membrane structures of cancer cells and enter cells to disrupt essential cellular functions. - The introduction of #Clostridium spp. recruits CD8+ T cells, granulocytes, and macrophages to the infection area and induces the release of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) from neutrophils.
  • - #Listeria spp. target tumors through the intracellular infection of tumor-infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which migrate to the immunosuppressive TME. - The transported #Listeria is then transmitted from MDSCs to cancer cells via a unique cell–cell spread mechanism. - The shrinkage of tumors by #Listeria spp. involves the combination of the direct killing of cancer cells by #Listeria infection and cytotoxic T cell response toward #Listeria antigens. - #Listeria spp. convert a subpopulation of #Listeria-infected MDSCs into an immune-stimulating phenotype that produces interleukin-12 (IL-12), a cytokine linked with heightened T cell and NK cell responses. - #Listeria spp. directly kill cancer cells by activating NADP (+) oxidase and increasing intracellular calcium levels, which trigger the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • [#Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)] - Certain probiotic bacteria reportedly demonstrated effects in suppressing and regressing cancer. - Their mechanisms include maintaining physicochemical conditions in the colon (e.g., pH and bile acid profile), balancing the quantity of beneficial gut microbiota members through the production of short-chain fatty acids, reducing the abundance of putrefactive bacteria producing enzymes such as azoreductase, β-glucosidase, β-glucuronidase, and nitroreductase, binding and degrading mutagenic compounds, as well as performing immunomodulatory activities. - Experimentations with wild-type probiotics have been performed against not only colorectal cancer, but also other cancers such as bladder, breast, cervical, and liver cancers. - Instead of oral administration, probiotics can also be delivered locally at tumor sites, which can reduce non-specific pharmacological effects on non-tumor tissues.
  • [#Salmonella typhimurium] - S. typhimurium, an intracellular pathogen, is chemoattracted to, and retained in, tumors due to the presence of metabolites produced by quiescent cancer cells within the TME (Tumor Micro envirounment). - Once in the tumor, S. typhimurium continues to proliferate and directly kills cancer cells by triggering of apoptosis, necrosis, and cell rupture. - S. typhimurium flagellin has been found to mount the antitumor response of CD8+ T and Natural Killer (NK) cells and to reduce the frequency of regulatory T cells (Tregs)
  • - #Salmonella spp. also induce cancer cells to produce the gap junction protein, connexin 43, which enhances the transfer and cross-presentation of processed tumor antigenic peptides between cancer cells and dendritic cells (DCs), and reduce the expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)
  • [1.6] [#Plant-based diet
    - High levels of plant dietary fibers in the gut resulted in proliferation of #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii with anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects.
  • [1.7
    - #Bifidobacterium species decrease cancer cell proliferation via the inhibition of growth factor signaling as well as inducing mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. - #Bifidobacterium species reduce the adverse effects of chemo/immuno/radiation therapy by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines.
  • [#Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)] - Bacteria present in probiotics, particularly the common Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium microbes, have been found to induce anti-cancer action by enhancing cancer cell apoptosis and protecting against oxidative stress. - Probiotics supplements also decrease the cancer-producing microorganism #Fusobacterium.
  • [1.8
    - A recent analysis surveyed bacteria in primary tumors and adjacent normal tissue across seven cancer types from body sites both exposed to and protected from microbes [16]. - Each tumor type displayed a unique microbial profile, with breast tumors harboring the richest and most diverse microbiome.
  • [1.9
    - Intratumoral bacteria can directly modulate antitumor immune responses.
  • [#Fusobacterium nucleatum] - F. nucleatum and certain co-occurring bacteria were present not only in primary tumors but also in distant metastases. Preliminary evidence suggests that the bacterium is localized primarily within the metastatic cancer cells rather than in the stroma. - Antibiotic treatment of mice carrying xenografts of F. nucleatum–positive human colorectal cancer slowed tumor growth, consistent with a causal role for the bacterium in tumorigenesis.
  • [1.11
    - Bacteroides fragilis, Bifidobacterium longum, Barnesiella intestinihomins or Alistipes shahii to support anticancer immunity by activating dendritic cells (DCs), by stimulating the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12) by DCs, by enhancing recruitment of tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), by triggering the production of interferon-γ (IFNγ) by tumor-infiltrating γδ T cells or by elevating the production of TNFα by intratumoural myeloid cells.
  • [1.12
    - There is a growing body of epidemiological evidence that #Folate modulates anticarcinogenic properties through epigenetic changes, as #Folate deficiency reduces the potential for DNA methylation, and abnormal DNA methylation is associated with many types of cancer.
  • - Green tea contains #Polyphenols, which are natural compounds widely distributed in plant foods and with many biological activities including inhibition of DNA methylation.
  • [1.13] [#Biliary tract cancer
    - The predominant dysbiotic bacteria in both #Chronic cholecystitis and gallbladder cancer were those belonging to the #Enterobacteriaceae family. #Klebsiella increased significantly in the order of normal, #Chronic cholecystitis, and gallbladder cancer.
  • [1.14] [#Fasting
    - Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition remains the most robust intervention to date for cancer prevention in rodents and monkeys, and, in humans, it promotes anticarcinogenic adaptations such as decreased production of growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, and anabolic hormones as well as decreased oxidative stress and free-radical–induced DNA damage.
  • [1.15] [#Oral administration of Inulin Gel
    - In multiple murine tumour models, #Inulin—a widely consumed dietary fibre—formulated as a ‘colon-retentive’ orally administered gel can effectively modulate the gut microbiome in situ, induce systemic memory-T-cell responses and amplify the antitumour activity of the checkpoint inhibitor anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (α-PD-1). - Orally delivered #Inulin-gel treatments increased the relative abundances of key commensal microorganisms and their short-chain-fatty-acid metabolites, and led to enhanced recall responses for interferon-γ+CD8+ T cells as well as to the establishment of stem-like T-cell factor-1+PD-1+CD8+ T cells within the tumour microenvironment.
  • [1.16] [#High salt diet
    - HSD increased the abundance of #Bifidobacterium and caused increased gut permeability leading to intratumor localization of #Bifidobacterium, which enhanced NK cell functions and tumor regression. - Intratumoral injections of #Bifidobacterium activated NK cells, which inhibited tumor growth.
  • [#High salt diet] - High-salt diet (HSD) modulates effector and regulatory T cell functions and promotes tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases. - HSD induces natural killer (NK) cell–mediated tumor immunity by inhibiting PD-1 expression while enhancing IFNγ and serum hippurate. - Salt enhanced tumor immunity when combined with a suboptimal dose of anti-PD1 antibody.
  • [1.17] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - Antibiotic treatments have been shown to decrease the effectiveness of anti-PD-L1 antibody therapy
  • [#Bacteroides fragilis toxin] - #Bacteroides fragilis toxin (Bft), can indirectly damage the host DNA by eliciting high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS)
  • - #Cytolethal Distending Toxin (CDT) by #Campylobacter jejuni and Colibactin by Escherichia Coli can directly damage DNA
  • [1.18] [#Immune checkpoint inhibitor
  • [1.19
    - There is a significant inverse relationship between the onset of #Alzheimer’s disease/#Parkinson’s Disease (AD/PD) and cancer. - An increase in PIN1 expression is related to a delay in the onset age of sporadic AD, whereas a decrease in PIN1 expression is associated with a reduced risk of various cancers. - prostate, ovarian, and lung cancers show the greatest negative correlation with AD.
  • - #AHR and its ligand activators have shown procancer activity, and ligand antagonists of #AHR have the potential to become anticancer drugs
  • - #Butyrate > robust anticancer ability in various cancer cell cultures and mouse models. - It can effectively promote cancer cell apoptosis and reduce cell proliferation capacity and activity through different signaling pathways
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - LPS > activating the TLR4 signal > promoting tumor cell metastasis and tumor angiogenesis > deterioration of cancer
  • [#Pancreatic Cancer] -pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) tumours in humans and mouse models of this cancer displayed an increase in #Fungi of about 3,000-fold compared to normal pancreatic tissue. - the fungal community that infiltrated PDA tumours was markedly enriched for #Malassezia spp. in both mice and humans. - Ablation of the mycobiome was protective against tumour growth in slowly progressive and invasive models of PDA, - repopulation with a #Malassezia species—but not species in the genera Candida, Saccharomyces or Aspergillus—accelerated oncogenesis. - ligation of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), which binds to glycans of the fungal wall to activate the complement cascade, was required for oncogenic progression, - Deletion of MBL or C3 in the extratumoral compartment—or knockdown of C3aR in tumour cells—were both protective against tumour growth.
  • [1.21
  • [1.22
    - Oral administration of #Castalagin > enriched for bacteria associated with efficient immunotherapeutic responses (#Ruminococcaceae and #Alistipes) and improved the CD8+/Foxp3+CD4+ ratio within the tumor microenvironment.
  • [#Bile Acids, #Castalagin, #Polyphenols] [#Polyphenol-rich supplementation] - oral supplementation with the polyphenol-rich berry camu-camu (CC, Myrciaria dubia) in mice > shifted gut microbial composition, which translated into antitumor activity and a stronger anti-PD-1 response.
  • - #Castalagin binds to #Ruminococcus bromii and promoted an anticancer response.
  • [1.23] [#Chronic fatigue syndrome, #Inflamatory bowel disease, #Multiple Sclerosis
    - MC/CFS > a reduction of #Faecalibacterium was also found in IBD patients with fatigue (compared to IBD patients without fatigue), , cancer-related fatigue (compared to cancer patients with low fatigue) and other autoimmune diseases such as MS and #Diabetes Type 1 .
  • [1.24
  • [1.25] [#kynurenine
    - #Tryptophan > Excessive Kyn levels in the tumor microenvironment is one of the adaptive mechanism for the tumors to escape immune surveillance and metastasize. Most individuals with cancer, including hepatocellular carcinoma, CRC, kidney cancer, lung cancer often exhibit increased Kyn levels and decreased serum Trp levels, or increased kyn/Trp ratio.
  • [1.26] [#Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    - #Indole-3-propionic acid, an indole derivative, exhibits biological activities similar to those of indoles, such as affecting host susceptibility to Mycobacterium #Tuberculosis anticancer activity.
  • [1.27] [#Gallstone Disease
    - Abnormal mucin secretion secondary to a decrease of the functional mucin degrading bacteria result not only in many intestinal tumoral diseases, but also in risk factors for GSD.
  • [1.28] [#kynurenine
    - Trp metabolite Kyn is present in higher amounts in the plasma of advanced-stage cancer patients.
  • [1.29] [#Fusobacterium nucleatum
    - F. nucleatum subdue host immune response and triggers cellular proliferation.
  • - Pan-cancer analysis of multiple body sites revealed tumor-associated mycobiomes at up to 1 fungal cell per 104 tumor cells
  • [1.31] [#Breast cancer, #Ovarian cancer, #Pancreatic Cancer
    - Fungi were detected in 35 cancer types and were often intracellular. - 0%–25% of the tumors per cancer type to be positive for either β-glucan or Aspergillus staining. - fungal staining was mainly evident within cancer cells in pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer, it mostly localized to macrophages in #Melanoma and lung cancers
  • [1.32
  • [1.33] [#Neutropenia] [#Chemotherapy treatment
    - Transferring gut microbiota from patients with neutropenic #Fever to irradiated mice promoted the development of subsequent #Fever. - An excess of mucin-degrading #Akkermansia bacteria found in the transferred microbiomes of febrile patients, as well as in nontransplanted but irradiated or chemotherapy-treated mice that reduced their food intake, resulted in a compromised intestinal barrier in mice that could be circumvented by administration of propionate.
  • [1.34] [#Colorectal cancer
    - Polyamines can feed cancer cells for growth and any polyamines, regardless of their sources (i.e., dietary, microbial, and tissues) can drive tumorigenesis. - Tumor cells require more polyamines for growth than healthy cells - cancer patients have increased #Polyamine levels in the blood and urine. - #Polyamine concentrations appear to be increased in CRC tissues compared to healthy tissues.
  • [1.35
  • [1.36
    - #Lachnoclostridium depleted in other psychiatric disorders including #Schizophrenia and #Autism and in patients with gastrointestinal tract neoplasms.
  • [1.37
    - #Linoleic acid (LA) is a major positive regulator of CTL ( Cytotoxic T Cell Lymphocytes ) activity by improving metabolic fitness, preventing exhaustion, and stimulating a memory-like phenotype with superior effector functions. - LA potentiates antitumor CTL response.
  • [1.38
    - Patients with #Rheumatoid Arthritis, cancer, autoimmune diseases or other chronic inflammatory conditions are predisposed to #Depression.
  • [1.39
    - higher tissue #Polyamine levels have been reported in various diseases like #Dementia due to #Alzheimer’s disease (AD), #Parkinson’s Disease, cancer, and mental disorders like #Depression.
  • - #Melatonin as a powerful free-radical scavenger with potential protective properties against neurodegenerative disorders, epilepsy, and certain cancers.
  • [1.41] [#Colorectal cancer, #Lung cancer, #Pancreatic Cancer] [#Veillonella atypica
    - #Veillonella genus is usually more abundant in treatment-naïve patients with lung, pancreatic (#Veillonella atypica) and colorectal cancer. - Furthermore, when comparing patients with advanced-stage cancer with and without weight loss, #Veillonella is more abundant in those who lost weight.
  • [#Melanoma] - An #Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-favorable response was characterized by an intestinal microbiome rich in bacteria such as #Oscillospira sp., #Clostridia UCG-014, #Lachnospiraceae UCG-010 sp., #Prevotella copri, and a decrease in #Sutterella sp., #Lactobacillales, and #Streptococcus sp. - Patients who developed immune-related adverse events (irAEs) had an overall increased microbial diversity and richness, and a stool microbiome depleted in #Agathobacter.
  • [#Akkermansia muciniphila] [#Immune checkpoint inhibitor] - The most prominent taxa associated with good response to ICI across different cancer types are #Phascolarctobacterium, #Bifidobacterium, A. muciniphila and #Rothia.
  • [1.42
    - cancer patients were shown to have lower concentrations of #Tryptophan and higher concentrations of #kynurenine pathway metabolites in their blood and urine. - TRP is one of the critical components required for T-cell survival, a first mechanism involves the overactivation of IDO1 and/or TDO to deplete TRP within the local tumour microenvironment rapidly. - a TRP-stripped tumour microenvironment mediated by an overactive tumoral IDO1/TDO will induce mid-G1 phase arrest in T cells. - three KP metabolites 3HK, 3HAA and QUIN were shown to suppress anti-tumour immune cell populations.
  • [1.43
    - #Spermidine specifically interferes with the tumour cell cycle, resulting in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and suppression of tumor growth. - it also triggers autophagy by regulating key oncologic pathways.
  • - Dietary intake of #Spermidine reduces the risk of neurodegeneration, metabolic diseases, heart ailments, and cancer.
  • - #Spermidine-mediated autophagy inhibits activation of apoptosis in cancer cells and is associated with tissue development and cell differentiation
  • [1.44
    - the large influx of #Mannose exceeding its metabolic capacity induced metabolic remodeling, leading to the generation of slow-cycling cells with limited deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). - This metabolic remodeling impaired dormant origin firing required to rescue stalled forks by cisplatin, thus exacerbating replication stress.
  • [1.45] [#Breast cancer] [#Iodine
    - I2 decreases the invasive potential of a triple negative basal cancer cell line, and under in vivo conditions the oral supplement of this halogen activates the antitumor immune response, preventing progression of xenografts from laminal and basal mammary cancer cells.
  • [1.46] [#Colorectal cancer, #Lung cancer, #Pancreatic Cancer] [#Veillonella atypica
    - #Veillonella genus is usually more abundant in treatment-naïve patients with lung, pancreatic (#Veillonella atypica) and colorectal cancer.
  • [#Immune checkpoint inhibitor] - increased abundance of #Akkermansia muciniphila, #Phascolarctobacterium, #Bifidobacterium and #Rothia in stool are consistently associated with better response to ICI treatment. - A. muciniphila is also more abundant in stool in patients with higher muscle mass, and muscle mass is a strong positive prognostic marker in cancer, including after ICI treatment.
  • [1.47] [#Autoimmune disease
    - #Bartonella henselae, the etiologic agent of Cat Scratch Disease, has become a “pathogen of interest” in several serious human illnesses, which include neoplastic, cardiovascular, neurocognitive, and rheumatologic conditions.
  • [1.48
    - #Butyrate may also suppress cancer cell expansion.
  • [1.49] [#Immune checkpoint inhibitor
    - In cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy, low levels of serum-soluble MAdCAM-1 correlated with intestinal dysbiosis and poor clinical outcomes for renal, bladder, and lung tumors
  • - #Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring, potent antioxidant, found in Brassicaceae plants such as #Broccoli, and is being considered for use in the treatment of #Fibrosis, cancer and preeclampsia
  • [1.51] [#Prostate cancer
    - #Akkermansia muciniphila extracellular vesicles interact with CD8-positive T-cells and macrophages to stimulate anti-tumor immunity
  • [1.52
    - inflammation model mimicking bacterial infection using #Lipopolysaccharide, the expression of many Tas2rs was significantly upregulated and mice displayed markedly increased neural and behavioral responses to bitter compounds. - inflammation > Tas2r gene regulation > altered #Bitter taste > heightened #Bitter taste that can occur with infections and cancer treatments.
  • [1.53] [#IL-1b
    - IL-1β was linked to lower expression of #E-cadherin, which promotes cell migration - Low #E-cadherin expression is correlated with disorders of cellular functions, growth inhibition, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and differentiation. It leads to aggressive carcinoma, higher invasiveness, and low patient survival
  • [#Fusobacteria] - fusobacterial adhesin/invasin FadA, which binds to #E-cadherin on carcinoma cells and activates β-catenin signaling. This pathway results in enhanced transcriptional activity of Wnt, activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, oncogenes, and stimulation of cancer cells proliferation
  • [#IL-1b] - In tissues of the periodontium, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, fibroblasts, and mast cells are the primary sources of IL-1β. - these cells synthesize IL-1β in response to activation from the influence of #Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the main component of Gram-negative bacteria cell walls. - IL-1β causes osteoclast formation and bone resorption, which leads to local inflammatory changes in the periodontium. - IL-1β activates endothelial cells to produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other proangiogenic factors (e.g., TNF) which provide an inflammatory microenvironment for angiogenesis and tumor progression. - High IL-1β content is associated with tumor invasiveness, migration, and more aggressive tumor phenotype.
  • - #IL-6 induces bone resorption and stimulates synthesis of acute phase proteins, chemokines, and PGE2. - #IL-6 induces #Oxidative stress and can lead to a transient accumulation of H2O2 in mitochondria and consequently to mitochondrial damage. - #IL-6 also affects the process of invasion and metastasis by increasing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). - #IL-6 upregulates the expression of various adhesion molecules (ICAMs) and endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecules (ELAMs), which cause adhesion of tumor cells to endothelial cells, and therefore have an impact on tumors spreading. - Most genes that are targeted by #IL-6 are involved in cell cycle progression and suppression of apoptosis. By influencing anti-apoptotic pathways, #IL-6 may have an impact on cancer development.
  • [#Alcohol Consumption] - Genus #Neisseria had extremely high ADH activity and produced significant amounts of #Acetaldehyde in vitro. - #Neisseria’s ability to produce #Acetaldehyde was more than 100-fold higher than that produced by #Streptococcus sp., Stomatococcus sp., or #Moraxella sp. - #Neisseria can be a regional source of carcinogenic #Acetaldehyde and may thus play an essential role in alcohol-related carcinogenesis in humans
  • [#Acetic acid, #Butyric acid, #Isobutyric acid, #Isocaproic acid, #Isovaleric acid] - aciduric #Peptostreptococcus stomatis produces acetic, butyric, isobutyric, isovaleric, and isocaproic acids. - Production of such acids may contribute to the acidic and hypoxic microenvironment of tumors, thereby increasing metastatic efficiency
  • [#Sulfide] - H2S is a known genotoxic agent and may lead to genomic instability or cumulative mutations. - Increased expression of various H2S-producing enzymes has been observed in cancer cells, particularly in cancers of the colon and ovaries. - Overexpression of cystathionine-β-synthase causes the production of increased amounts of H2S, which affect tumor growth and spread by activation of proliferation, migration, and invasive signaling pathways, and enhance tumor angiogenesis
  • [1.54
    - #Sulfur-metabolism pathways were found to be one of the frequent pathways among certain member of cancer-increased taxa such as #Aquabacterium, #Bilophila wadsworthia, #Delftia, #Desulfovibrio, #Escherichia coli, #Fusobacterium, #Klebsiella, #Lactobacillus, #Morganella, #Odoribacter, and #Proteus.
  • - cancer-associated bacteria are #Fusobacterium nucleatum, #Peptostreptococcus stomatis, and #Parvimonas micra
  • - #Fusobacterium and #Peptostreptococcus were the most consistently increased genera among the cancer cases
  • [1.55
    - #Corynebacteriaceae and #Micrococcaceae families > mostly in nongastrointestinal tumors
  • - Although species belonging to the #Proteobacteria and #Firmicutes phyla accounted for most of the detected bacterial sequences in all cancer types, the #Proteobacteria to #Firmicutes (P/F) ratio appears to vary between tumor types
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - In cancer cells, bacterial 16S rRNA was detected mostly in the cytoplasm, whereas LPS staining was associated with both the cytoplasm and the nucleus
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - Cancer Tissue > the processing of bacterial LPS by macrophages is very slow; therefore, LPS can be found in these cells months after the bacteria were ingested and processed
  • [#Lipoteichoic acid] - Cancer Tissue > LTA-positive bacteria were almost exclusively found in macrophages
  • [1.56
  • [1.57
    - tumor cells tend to utilize aerobic glycolysis to obtain energy and concomitantly produce a large amount of L-#Lactate. - tumor cells prefer aerobic glycolysis to obtain massive energy, where a large fraction of #Pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted into #Lactate
  • [1.58] [#Skin wound
    - #Akkermansia is associated with enhancement of wound healing, augmented antitumor responses, protection against #Obesity, and induced intestinal adaptive immune responses during homeostasis
  • [1.59] [#Antibiotic Therapy, #Immune checkpoint inhibitor
    - Antibiotic treatment results in decreased gut microbiota translocation into mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and TDLNs, diminished DC and effector CD8+ T cell responses, and attenuated responses to ICT.
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - #Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) is a ##Probiotic that has emerged as novel therapeutic agents cancer effects by increasing the cytotoxicity and death of CRC cells or reducing NLRP3 and ERK phosphorylation.
  • [#Lactobacillus plantarum] - L. plantarum metabolites can reverse altered glycolysis mechanisms, thereby decreasing cancer cell proliferation, increasing apoptosis, and decreasing chemoresistance. - L. plantarum metabolites appear to obstruct phagophore and autophagosome formation, including the steps of vesicle nucleation and vesicle elongation, resulting in decreased expression of autophagy proteins.
  • [1.61] [#Acetylcholine
    - #Acetate metabolism is an important metabolic pathway in many cancers and is controlled by acetyl-CoA synthetase 2 (ACSS2), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of #Acetate to acetyl-CoA. - blocking ACSS2, switches cancer cells from #Acetate consumers to producers of #Acetate thereby freeing #Acetate for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to use as a fuel source.
  • [1.62] [#Pancreatic Cancer
    - #TMAO is associated with increased risk of several cancer types including pancreatic cancer.
  • - #TMAO induces activation of inflammatory pathways, including the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway and the thioredoxin-interactive protein (TXNIP)-NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in increased #Oxidative stress, DNA damage, and release of inflammatory cytokines that may potentiate cancer development
  • [1.63
    - #Succinate possesses the capacity to regulate tumorigenesis within specific intrinsic microenvironments. - #Succinate is now acknowledged as a classical tumorigenic signal, alongside its well-established association with inflammation. - accumulation of #Succinate in M1 macrophages is closely associated with the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. Upon activation by LPS, TLR4 signaling is triggered, resulting in the disruption of the Krebs cycle
  • [1.64] [#Streptococcus pyogenes
    - two receptors on the surface of many immune cells, known as toll-like receptors, lock onto S. pyogenes cardiolipins. - The cells then recognize the bacteria as invaders and call out for release of an inflammatory molecule known as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha. - #Cardiolipin SpCL-1 > additional strategy to stimulate an immune response to fight cancer.
  • [1.65] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - SCFAs trigger autophagy in cancer cells and promote M2 polarization in macrophages, accelerating tumor advancement. - By preventing cell proliferation and migration, lowering HDAC, and triggering apoptosis, SCFAs in the host gut and other areas might significantly reduce carcinogenesis, which would be beneficial for both preventing and treating malignancies of the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs
  • [1.66] [#Bile Acids, #Deoxycholic acid, #Lithocholic acid
    - Secondary BA, DCA, and LCA can cause DNA damage
  • [1.67
    - the spores of #Clostridia that germinate in anoxic tumor sites may produce products that disrupt tumor cell membranes also cause deterioration of solid tumors, activation of the immune system mediated by T cells + CD8 and NKCs, and thus may make a therapeutic approach
  • - The consumption of sporangial bacteria represents another method used in the experiments with #Clostridium novyi, which can live under unfavorable environmental conditions. - This micro-organism favors anaerobic environments that are present in the tumor. Rather than spreading throughout the body, the bacteria are guided only to the tumor area, where they have an ideal growth environment. - This microbial property protects the patient from the occurrence of serious infections
  • - #Clostridium novyi and #Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: The greatest advantage of using these microorganisms is that they locate directly inside the tumor, in contrast to chemotherapeutics, which spread throughout the body with blood, also destroying normal, healthy cells. Bacteria grow in the necrotic sites of the tumor and may destroy tumor cells directly
  • - #Streptococcus pyogenes and lymphangioma: These mediate immune cell sensitization. - Triggered cells that invade the neoplasm, inhibit further growth and minimize lymphangioma > amounts of lymphocytes and neutrophils, and also macrophages, are quickly increasing on the first day after administration of the suspension. - Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), #IL-6, #IL-8, and NK cell levels also increased.
  • [1.68] [#Probiotic
    - similar L-#Lactate-producing #Lactic acid #Bacteria commensal to other body sites are also significantly associated with survival in colorectal, lung, head and neck, and skin cancers.
  • [#Probiotic] - that #Lactic acid bacteria in the tumor microenvironment can alter tumor metabolism and #Lactate signaling pathways, causing therapeutic resistance.
  • [1.69] [#Colorectal cancer, #Hepatocellular cancer
    - Elevated #Methionine adenosyl transferase 2A (MAT2A) levels were observed in various types of cancer, including CRC, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - #Methanethiol as a biomarker for non-invasive early cancer detection. - Commensal #Bacteria residing in the colonic lumen can convert dietary #Methionine to #Methanethiol through MGL-catalyzed α,γ-elimination and γ-replacement reactions. - #Fusobacterium nucleatum, #Citrobacter freundii, #Morganella morganii,and several #Proteus species have been reported to contribute to intestinal #Methanethiol production
  • [#Hydrogen sulfide] - In cancer patients, endogenous synthesis of #Methanethiol may substantially increase due to elevated levels of metabolites, such as #Methionine (Met), #Glucose (Glc), H2S, and SAM, in tumor cells.
  • - The uptake of #Glucose and #Methionine is often elevated in cancer cells due to the upregulation of the respective transporters
  • [#Kidney stone] [#Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, #Flavonifractor plautii] - F. plautii enriched in Nephrolithiasis > is a #Flavonoid-degrading bacterium, but dietary plant flavonoids have been shown to be beneficial in stone and cancer cohorts, potentially reducing the incidence of CaOx stones through diuretic, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
  • [1.71
    - Numerous animal and plant fats contain #Stearate, an 18-carbon saturated fatty acid. #Stearate is crucial for the growth of different tumors because it alters mitochondrial morphology, rendering cancer cells vulnerable to #Oxidative stress and cell death
  • [1.72] [#Glutamine
  • [1.73
    - a lower abundance of gut resident #Bifidobacterium is linked with more aggressive tumors.
  • - Decreased levels of #Bifidobacterium will not be able to synthesize enough ##Folate, it will elevate the risk of aneuploidies related to rectal cancer, leading to severity in rectal cancer cases.
  • [1.74] [#Immune checkpoint inhibitor
    - an abundance of #Akkermansia has been associated with a clinical benefit from immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with non-small cell lung or renal cancer
  • [1.75
    - in vivo OE33 xenograft model, intraperitoneal administration of 5-mg/kg #Ferrichrome for 14 days resulted in an almost complete inhibition of tumor growth.
  • [1.76] [#Head & Neck cancer, #Oral cancer] [#Alcohol Consumption
    - alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme found in different #Candida species enables them to produce #Acetaldehyde that is highly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic
  • [#Candida tropicalis] - #Aspergillus fumigatus, C. tropicalis, and #Acremonium exuviarum, all labelled as “oncogenic fungi”
  • - #Candidalysin, a toxic epithelium-damaging substance produced by #Candida, has been postulated to enhance tumor-promoting immunity
  • - The #Polysaccharide FMP-1 derived from #Morchella esculenta is attributed with #Prebiotic benefits and potential anti-tumor activity owing to its antioxidant capabilities
  • - #Morchella, recognized for its potent inhibitory activity against harmful bacteria, experiences a noteworthy reduction in reduction in individuals with premalignant and malignant conditions.

References Notes


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Common References


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