Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Disease ⇒ Obesity {40000167}

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Gastroenterology, Endocrinology, Metabolomics
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a higher amount of Firmicutes in a sample is associated with obesity development, while higher Bacteroidetes is associated with weight loss.

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Long-term consumption of highly processed foods by pregnant women has been shown to alter gut microbial diversity and relative abundances in the newborn, and exposure of infants to such foods can influence appetite preferences and eating habits that persist throughout life
  • [1.2
    - Obesity alters the balance of #Firmicutes in non-obese individuals to #Bacteroidetes phyla in obese ones.
  • [1.3] [#Human breast milk
    - Infants fed with breast milk rich in #Betaine showed reduced growth rates after birth. - Experiments in mice showed that giving #Betaine to female mice improved blood sugar metabolism and lowered fat tissue in breastfeeding offspring. - When breast-fed with milk rich in #Betaine, both mouse pups and human infants had higher amounts of #Akkermansia bacteria in their guts. - Low levels of maternal #Betaine during pregnancy are linked to increased infant weight at birth. - Maternal #Betaine supplementation resulted in lower fetal weight in a mouse study.
  • [1.4] [#Mediterranean diet
    - Mediterranean-style diet is highly encouraged because of its healthy dietary pattern, which includes antioxidant nutraceuticals such as polyphenols. Indeed, hydroxycinnamic derivatives, quercetin, resveratrol, oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, which are well known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, exert anti-obesity proprieties.
  • [1.5
    - #High-fat diet and obesity are associated with increased Firmicutes and decreased Bacteroidetes
  • [1.6] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - Early antibiotic exposure in animal models has shown that reductions in the population size of specific microbiota, such as Lactobacillus, Allobaculum, Rikenellaceae, and Candidatus Arthromitus, are related to subsequent adiposity.
  • [1.7
    - The probiotic strain #Hafnia alvei HA4597® (HA), which produces the satietogenic peptide ClpB mimicking the effect of alpha-MSH, reduced weight gain and adiposity in rodent models of obesity.
  • [1.8
    - Dorea formicigenerans, Dorea longicatena and Collinsella aerofaciens could be considered obesity biomarkers.
  • [#Saturated fatty acids (SFAs)] - Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were negatively associated with the genus #Intestinimonas, a biomarker of the overweight/obese group.
  • [1.9
  • [1.11
  • [1.12
    - The presence of a dysbiotic microbiome > subsequent increases in gut permeability to bacteria-derived pathogens, including LPS and ethanol. - LPS, gut peptides, SCFAs and lactate > Microbiota-brain-gut axis > Gut afferent neuron > key signaling molecules involved in gut-brain communication and host metabolism.
  • - #Bacteroidetes > prevalence is lower in obese people > low-calorie diet > proportion increasealong with weight loss based on a low-calorie diet .
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - SCFAs > activation of their receptors GPR43 and GPR41 > inhibits lipolysis > adipocyte differentiation.
  • [1.13
  • [1.14
    - Low levels of #Bacteroidetes phylum > associate with obesity and #High fasting glucose > increases following the “good” diet and decreases following the “bad” diet
  • - Low levels of #Alistipes putredinis > obesity > increased following the “good” diet
  • - Low levels of #Bifidobacterium adolescentis > associated with greater weight loss > generally decrease in RA following the “good” diet and increase following the “bad” diet
  • [1.15] [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Gender, #Resistant starch
    - gut microbiota, especially #Faecalibacterium, Predict postprandial glucose response (PPGR) after eating potatoes.
  • [1.16] [#Metabolic syndrome] [#Fecal Microbiota Transplantation, #High-fiber diet
  • [1.17
    - Maternal consumption of #Sweeteners > altered cecal microbial composition and metabolism of #Propionate/#Lactate in their offspring. - Offspring daily body weight gain, liver weight and body fat > correlate positively to the relative abundance of key microbes and enzymes involved in #Succinate/#Propionate production while negatively correlated to that of #Lactose degradation and #Lactate production. - The altered #Propionate/#Lactate production in the cecum of weanlings from aspartame and stevia consuming dams implicates an altered ratio of dietary carbohydrate digestion, mainly #Lactose, in the small intestine vs. microbial fermentation in the large intestine.
  • [1.18
    -Severe obesity is associated with an absolute deficiency in bacterial #Biotin producers and transporters, whose abundances correlate with host metabolic and inflammatory phenotypes
  • [1.19] [#Serotonin] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - Gut Dysbiosis > increase hypothalamic microRNA-204 (miR-204), a microRNA > reduce SIRT1 and BDNF > decrease in the sympathetic nerve activity > increase the browning of WAT > Obesity
  • - In 214 humans, they found the average blood levels of #Delta-valerobetaine was 40 percent higher for people with a BMI greater than 30 compared to those with lower BMIs. - #Delta-valerobetaine contributes to obesity and hepatic steatosis by modulating mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and increasing lipid storage in the adipose tissue and liver.
  • [1.21] [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Yogurt consumption
    - yogurt intake impacts the hepatic metabolome, notably maintaining the levels of branched chain hydroxy acids (BCHA) which correlate with improved metabolic parameters
  • [1.22] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - SCFAs have been reported to have potential to enhance intestinal gluconeogenesis, with hepatic glucose production declining and energy-spending increasing.2 Furthermore, SCFAs are capable of facilitating peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, which can promote satiety and increase peripheral glucose catabolism
  • - increased levels of #Succinate (an important metabolite of glucose metabolism) in plasma and feces of obese patients and a positive correlation between #Succinate levels and body weight.
  • [#Urolithin A] - UA has also been shown to prevent hereditary or HFD-induced obesity by increasing energy expenditure mainly through promoting thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT)
  • [#δ-valerobetaine TMAVA] - δ-valerobetaine (TMAVA), a trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) structural analogue, was indicated to be a diet-dependent obesogen that could exacerbate obesity in mice induced by the western diet
  • [1.23] [#Diabetes Type 2
    - In healthy human subjects #Akkermansia muciniphila was associated to low body weight, low body fat proportion, reduced adipose tissue inflammation and reduced insulin resistance.
  • [#Lactobacillus animalis] - several bacteria such as: #Methanobrevibacter smithii, #Bifidobacterium spp., #Bifidobacterium animalis, #Escherichia coli, #Akkermansia muciniphila, #Anaerotruncus colihominis and bacteria of the Bacteroidetes strain have the capability to reduce the production of high-calorie substances and therefore also influence the caloric intake. A relatively low frequency of these bacteria correlates with increased body weight, as we have also observed.
  • [1.24
  • [1.25] [#Whole grains
    - Harboring high levels of #Prevotella at baseline resulted in increased weight loss in individuals with excess body weight who consumed whole grain-rich diets
  • [1.26] [#Akkermansia muciniphila
  • [1.27] [#Celiac Disease
  • [1.28] [#Allergy, #Diabetes Type 1, #Infantile eczema
    #Infants treated with antibiotic > The early use of this treatment has been associated with higher risks of allergic diseases, eczema , and obesity, and type 1 diabetes
  • [#Allergy] - #Exposure to pets increases the abundance of Ruminococcus and Oscillospira species, which may protect against allergic disorders and obesity in children
  • [1.29] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - SCFAs activate mucosal G protein-coupled receptors in the gut so they contribute to the regulation of secretion of incretin hormones such as glucagon like peptide-1, peptide YY and leptin.
  • - #Delta-valerobetaine production by the gut microbiome reduces cellular carnitine and mitochondrial long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA); consequently, this obesogenic metabolite prevents mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and leads to diet-dependent obesity.
  • [1.31] [#Prediabetes] [#High-fat diet
    - microbiota protects against development of obesity, #Metabolic syndrome, and pre-diabetic phenotypes by inducing commensal-specific Th17 cells. - High-fat, high-#Sugar diet promoted metabolic disease by depleting Th17-inducing microbes, and recovery of commensal Th17 cells restored protection. - Diet-induced loss of protective Th17 cells was mediated by the presence of #Sugar. - Eliminating #Sugar from high-fat diets protected mice from obesity and #Metabolic syndrome in a manner dependent on commensal-specific Th17 cells. - #Sugar and ILC3 promoted outgrowth of #Faecalibaculum rodentium that displaced Th17-inducing microbiota.
  • [1.32] [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Blautia wexlerae] [#Oral administration of Blautia wexlerae
    - Blautia genus, especially B. wexlerae, as a commensal bacterium that is inversely correlated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. - Oral administration of B. wexlerae to mice induce metabolic changes and anti-inflammatory effects that decrease both high-fat diet–induced obesity and diabetes. - The beneficial effects of B. wexlerae are correlated with unique amino-acid metabolism to produce S-adenosylmethionine, acetylcholine, and L-ornithine and carbohydrate metabolism resulting in the accumulation of amylopectin and production of succinate, lactate, and acetate, with simultaneous modification of the gut bacterial composition. - S-adenosylmethionine, acetylcholine, and L-ornithine have anti-inflammatory properties and modify aspects of host metabolism, such as lipid metabolism, indicating that these compounds are potential effector metabolites for controlling obesity and diabetes.
  • [1.33
    - Supplementation of #Bifidobacterium pseudolongum has fat-reducing effect on obese mice. - #Bifidobacterium pseudolongum treatment significantly decreased the plasma triglycerides and gross energy intake. - #Bifidobacterium pseudolongum improved the intestinal environment, increased the colonization of beneficial bacteria, and changed the composition and structure of gut microbiota.
  • [1.34
    - Obesity > expansion of Escherichia shigella in obese patients compared to healthy controls. - The family #Eubacterium coprostanoligenes and #Tannerellaceae, the genera #Eubacterium coprostanoligenes, #Lachnospiraceae NK4A136, #Parabacteroides, and Akkermansia, and the species #Prevotella copri were microbial biomarkers of healthy people. - #Gammaproteobacteria and #Enterobacterales were biomarkers of being “Overweight”.
  • [1.35] [#Culinary herbs and spices
    - higher #Firmicutes to #Bacteroidetes ratio has been associated with obesity. - decrease in #Firmicutes and increase in #Bacteroidetes following spice intervention in humans
  • - #Acetic acid, a product of #Bifidobacterium spp. known to function as an appetite suppressant, was found to be most abundant in the faeces of mice following #Ginger supplementation.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - #Ginger root consumption could increase Bifidobacterium spp., enhance faecal SCFA production as well as invoke anti-obesity effects in obese mice
  • [1.36
    - colonization of mice with S24-7 and #Lactobacillus johnsonii was sufficient to reduce overconsumption of high-sucrose pellets in an antibiotic-induced model of binge eating.
  • [1.37] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Amyloid-beta
    - high-fat diets and obesity are associated with increased risk for developing AD and #Dementia. - the incidence of AD is higher in countries that typically consume high-fat diets as opposed to low-fat diets. - Increased Aβ plaques in the brain after consumption of a high fat diet has been observed in mouse models of amyloidosis. - a #High-fat diet can result in an increase in neuroinflammation and decreased performance on AD-related behavior tests.
  • [1.38] [#Human breast milk, #Infants
    - HM #Butyrate concentrations were overall negatively associated with infant weight and adiposity, and associations were stronger at younger infant ages. - HM #Butyrate concentration was also inversely correlated with HM intake volume, supporting a possible mechanism whereby #Butyrate might reduce infant growth via appetite regulation and modulation of HM intake.
  • [1.39] [#Diabetes Type 2
    - A reduction in the #Lachnospira, #Roseburia, #Faecalibacterium and #Coprococcus genera in the T2D group. - These genera were #Butyrate producers. - The decrease of these genera favored obesity and the development of diseases.
  • [#Colorectal cancer
  • [1.41
    - #Quercetin was also shown to inhibit obesity-induced hypothalamic inflammation by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammatory responses, likely through mechanisms involving heme oxygenase induction.
  • [1.42] [#Physical activity
    - In normal but not overweight participants, high PA duration showed greater relative abundance of commensal taxa such as #Actinobacteria and #Proteobacteria phyla, as well as #Collinsella and #Prevotella genera.
  • [#Physical activity] - In overweight > high PA duration > participants had a lower abundance of the #Oscillibacter genus.
  • [1.43] [#CVD] [#Inulin-Type Fructans
    - Addition of ITF to the #Plant-based diet reduced microbial diversity and selectively increased #Bifidobacterium and #Faecalibacterium. -- The change in the latter was significantly associated with higher values of insulin and HOMA-IR and lower HDL #Cholesterol. - The LDL:HDL ratio and the concentrations of IL-10, MCP-1 and TNFα were significantly elevated in the ITF-subgroup.
  • [1.44] [#Diabetes Type 2
    - Microbial homeostasis is normally maintained by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). - PPAR-γ is a nuclear receptor activated by #Butyrate and other ligands, is found in adipocytes and colonocytes, and is responsible for activating genes involved in #Glucose and lipid metabolism.
  • [1.45] [#Fusobacterium varium
    - #Lachnospiraceae bacterium and members of #Ruminococcus and #Fusobacterium species, including #Fusobacterium ulcerans and #Fusobacterium varium, were found to be enriched in patients with obesity
  • - Amino acids including #Phenylalanine, lysine, #Tryptophan, #Valine, #Leucine, and #Isoleucine, which are not synthesized in the body, were all reduced in individuals with obesity. - The reasons might be that specific amino acids were derived from proteins of various foods and fermented by microbiotas, which caused the concentration change in the circulation.
  • [1.46] [#Lipopolysaccharide
    - endotoxin may prevent adipocyte browning and impair mitochondrial respiration, biogenesis and dynamics in human adipocytes, thus contributing to obesity-related metabolic dysfunction, including dyslipidaemia and ectopic AT deposition in T2DM.
  • [1.47
    - #Acetate is a substrate for #Cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis, which inhibits gluconeogenesis - #Acetate causes browning of white adipose tissue which increases the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis
  • - #Broccoli intervention increased the relative abundance of #Bacteroidetes and reduced the relative abundance of #Firmicutes.
  • - #Propionate is used as a substrate for gluconeogenesis, which increases energy expenditure and reduces food intake and #Cholesterol synthesis.
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - inflammation driven by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and other microbial molecules, however, has been associated with greater adiposity and insulin resistance
  • [1.48] [#Olive
    - in humans, EVOO has prebiotic effects, promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria such as #Lactobacillus and #Bifidobacterium. Specifically, a #Mediterranean diet supplemented with 40 g/day EVOO for 3 months administered to 18 overweight/obese participants resulted in significantly increased levels of #Lactic acid bacteria compared to baseline.
  • [#Olive] - EVOO has demonstrated antibacterial and bacteriostatic effects against bacteria such as those in the #Desulfovibrionaceae,a family of opportunistic pathogens associated with obesity and inflammation, and #Blautia spp., which positively correlates with visceral fat accumulation in Japanese men and women.
  • [#Olive] - The major fatty acid in EVOO, #Oleic acid, assists in maintaining #Glucose homeostasis by activating the G protein–coupled receptors GPR-120 and GPR-40, leading to intestinal GLP-1 release and widespread ant-inflammatory effects in a variety of tissues, including liver and adipose tissue.
  • [1.49
    - age-related decreases in endogenous #Melatonin production are correlated with disease and dysfunction. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate #Melatonin’s protective ability against mitochondria-mediated injury with #Hypertension and obesity,
  • - SPF mice that received a high-fat diet did gain weight. This diet quickly boosted the abundance of certain microbes in the small intestine, including microbes from the Clostridiaceae and Peptostreptococcaceae families. A member of Clostridiaceae was found to specifically impact fat absorption. The abundance of other bacterial families decreased on a high-fat diet including Bifidobacteriacaea and Bacteriodacaea, which are commonly associated with leanness.
  • [1.51
    - Lactobacillus casei can improve insulin resistance which is the underlying cause of obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities, in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice.
  • [1.52
    - These changes in Akkermansia muciniphila were robustly correlated with the expression of lipid metabolism and inflammation markers in adipose tissue, as well as several circulating parameters (i.e., glucose, insulin, triglycerides, leptin) from DIO mice.

References Notes

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