Porphyromonas ⇒ Porphyromonas gingivalis {10000232}

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Porphyromonas gingivalis


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- Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), dampens interferon (IFN) signaling in a manner that is strikingly similar to IFN suppression employed by multiple viral pathogens
two toxic chemicals produced by the oral bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis (which is involved in gum disease) were found in more than 96% of participants in brain regions associated with memory.

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Anti‐Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) antibody titers positively correlated with intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), fasting blood glucose, and HOMA‐IR in metabolic syndrome patients. - Pg administration altered the gut microbiome, particularly by decreasing the abundance of genus Turicibacter.
  • [1.2
    - The Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a secondary colonizer of the oral biofilm and is involved in the onset and progression of periodontitis.
  • [1.3] [#Oral Administration of P. gingivalis
    - Even a single administration of oral P. gingivalis can increase the prevalence of Bacteroidetes while decreasing the abundance of Firmicutes
  • [#Rheumatoid Arthritis] - The presence of P. gingivalis in the GI microbiota has been linked with a milieu of inflammatory/autoimmune diseases associated with GI dysbiosis including RA and NAFLD
  • [1.4] [#Rheumatoid Arthritis
    - Increased serum levels of the antibodies IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) and antibodies against #Citrullinated Proteins (ACPA) in healthy individuals imply an elevated risk of developing RA - The possible role of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the immunopathogenesis of RA has been of particular interest due to its capacity to generate #Citrullinated Proteins.
  • [1.5] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - tau to be a target of gingipain proteolysis and suggested that tau pathology in AD brains may be caused by transneural spread of P. gingivalis, tau damage by gingipain proteolysis, and activation of human proteases. They also hypothesized that #Gingipains might be a driver of a compensatory increase in tau production of AD patients.
  • [1.6] [#Periodontal disease] [#Secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein proline-g
    - Secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein proline-glutamine rich 1 (SCPPPQ1), a protein normally produced by the gingival epithelium to mediate its attachment to teeth, was suggested to be bactericidal. - Incubation of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major periodontopathogen, with the full-length protein resulted in decrease in bacterial number, formation of aggregates and membrane disruptions.
  • [1.7] [#Multiple Sclerosis, #Periodontal disease] [#Lipopolysaccharide
    - in periodontitis-diseased tissues, P. gingivalis was present, but not much LPS was evident in tissues. - these bacterial lipids accumulate in structures in blood vessels that can lead to thickening or blockages called atheromas. - in the blood of MS patients, and they found that the bacterial lipid levels were lower in MS patients, a very surprising result. They expected, if anything, that patients with the autoimmune disease would have more lipid present.
  • [1.8
    - Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), dampens interferon (IFN) signaling in a manner that is strikingly similar to IFN suppression employed by multiple viral pathogens. - Pg suppressed IFN production by down-regulating several IFN regulatory factors (IRFs 1, 3, 7, and 9), proteolytically degrading STAT1 and suppressing the nuclear translocation of the ISGF3 complex, resulting in profound and systemic repression of multiple IFN-stimulated genes.
  • [1.9] [#Diabetic Retinopathy
    - exposure to Porphyromonas gingivalis increases the risk for early DR
  • [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Amyloid-beta, #Gingipains] - AβPP is an infection responsive protein cleaved via the amyloidogenic pathway on exposure to conditioned medium and in the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators.
  • [1.11] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - nerve cells in the brain contain a type of protein called tau. When tau meets the #Gingipains enzyme, the tau released from the nerve cell. Once freed, tau physically changes, in the form of coils and non-coiling filaments. These filaments of tau then re-attach to the nerve cell and become incorporated into the lesion known as neurofibrillary tangles. - once a nerve cell dies and the free tau protein leaks into the brain, the tau may attach itself to healthy neighboring nerve cells, repeating the process and leading to further damage to the brain as the disease spreads
  • [1.12] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - Local periodontal inflammation due to infection with #Helicobacter pylori, the agent of gastric ulcers, or with Porphyromonas gingivalis, in fact, can stimulate brain tissue inflammation
  • [1.13] [#Atherosclerosis, #CVD] [#Campylobacter rectus, #Porphyromonas endodontalis, #Prevotella intermedia, #Prevotella nigrescens
    - 23 oral commensal bacteria, either individually or in coexistence, within carotid endarterectomy biopsies from patients undergoing surgical procedures. Of these 23 bacteria, five were unique to coronary plaques, including P. gingivalis, P. endodontalis, P. intermedia, C. rectus, and P. nigrescens.
  • - P. gingivalis, a critical pathogen in periodontal disease, is a significant trigger agent for #Oral cancer, and its colonization in tumor tissues is correlated with poor survival in patients with carcinoma
  • [1.14] [#Alzheimer’s disease
    - The predominant bacterium of salivary microbiome and periodontal microbiome from AD patients was #Streptococcus oralis and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. - P. gingivalis was associated with AD only in GCF. - the dominant species were different between early-onset AD and late-onset AD patients. - the predominant species were changed as the clinical severity of AD.
  • [1.15] [#Gingipains
    - Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogenic bacterium involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Citrullination has been reported as the underlying mechanism of the pathogenesis, which relies on the interplay between two virulence factors of the bacterium, namely gingipain R and the bacterial peptidyl arginine deiminase. - Gingipain R cleaves host proteins to expose the C-terminal arginines for peptidyl arginine deiminase to citrullinate and generate #Citrullinated Proteins. - Citrullinating proteins present in the host synovial tissues, atherosclerotic plaques and neurons. - both virulence factors are the key factors that trigger distal effects mediated by citrullination, leading to the development of some non-communicable diseases, such as #Rheumatoid Arthritis, #Atherosclerosis, and #Alzheimer’s disease.
  • [1.16
    - #Pyricularia pennisetigena and #Alternaria alternata positively correlated with P. gingivalis administration in the fungal community.
  • [#Atherosclerosis, #Rheumatic Hearth Disease] - Oral microbes, including P. gingivalis, #Actinomyces, #Streptococcus, and #Treponema denticola, have been confirmed as sources of infected heart valves, atherosclerotic plaques, and rheumatic heart valves
  • - P. gingivalis infection gives rise to microbiome dysbiosis. It increases serum endotoxin levels, allowing opportunistic pathogens to colonize in the oral cavity and stimulating the overgrowth of commensal microbes in the intestine (generally upregulates #Bacteroidetes and #Deferribacteres, and downregulates #Firmicutes)
  • [#Colorectal cancer] [#Butyrate] - In the intestine, oral-derived microbiotas create an inflammatory and immunosuppressive microenvironment suitable for tumorigenesis. It is detected the existence of oral-originated bacteria (#Fusobacterium nucleatum, P. gingivalis, and #Parvimonas micra) in CRC tissues.
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - CRC patients’ intestines are pathologically colonized with abnormally abundant P. gingivalis, whose infection gives rise to a poor CRC prognosis
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - the #Peptidoglycan from P. gingivalis molecules induces programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) up-regulation in colon carcinoma cells and mediates deep inhibition of T cells
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - Cells of Paneth autonomously sense LPS via MyD88-dependent TLR, then stimulate antimicrobial cytokines and trigger the downstream NF-κB pathway, which subsequently regulates the production of Th17 cells or Tregs (LPS from P. gingivalis induces a stronger Th2 response while #Klebsiella pneumoniae induces a stronger Th1 response)
  • [#Metabolic associated fatty liver disease] - Via disturbing intestinal metabolic and immune pathways, Porphyromonas gingivalis accelerates the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
  • [#Enterobacteriaceae bacterium] - the oral bacterium in the duodenum may be capable of entering the pancreas. For instance, the periodontal microbes (Porphyromonas gingivalis and #Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) have been proven positively related to #Pancreatic Cancer risk
  • [1.17
    - Some oral #Bacteria (e.g., Porphyromonas gingivalis, #Prevotella intermedia, #Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and #Fusobacterium nucleatum) produce volatile #Sulfur compounds (VSCs), such as #Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl #Sulfide ((CH3)2S), and dimethyl disulfide (CH3SSCH3).
  • [#Oral squamous cell carcinoma] - specific bacteria have been identified that correlate strongly with Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), such as #Streptococcus sp., #Peptostreptococcus sp., #Prevotella sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, and #Capnocytophaga gingivalis
  • [#Oral squamous cell carcinoma] - most often observed oral bacteria in OSCCs are #Streptococcus sp., #Peptostreptococcus sp., #Prevotella sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, and #Capnocytophaga gingivalis
  • [#Pancreatic Cancer] - In pancreatic cancers, in addition to #Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis, strains of #Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, #Neisseria elongata, and #Streptococcus mitis have been described.
  • - Intracellular P. gingivalis activates antiapoptotic Jak1/Akt/Stat3 signaling, which controls intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathways
  • [1.18] [#Parkinson’s Disease] [#Campylobacter rectus, #Prevotella melaninogenica
    - C. rectus has been associated with the symptoms of #Alzheimer’s disease along with P. gingivalis and P. melaninogenica. - increase in C. rectus as well as P. gingivalis and P. melaninogenica in the PA+PD group.
  • [#Parkinson’s Disease] - P. gingivalis may be responsible for the systemic inflammation, abnormal α-synuclein deposition in intestinal neurons, and the dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, as well as that oral bacteria, may translocate to extraoral areas
  • [#IL-1a] - P. gingivalis can suppress 72% of interleukin-1 alpha production
  • [1.19] [#Colorectal cancer] [#Fusobacterium nucleatum
    - most CRC-associated microbes, such as F. nucleatum, P. gingivalis, and #Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia) are suggested to reside intracellularly.
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - In CRC, invasive P. gingivalis is enriched and correlated with higher levels of #Butyrate, possibly inducing SASP
  • [#Fusobacterium nucleatum] - communities containing both F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis featured a higher rate of invasion of gingival epithelial cells as compared to those featuring either of these species without the othe
  • [#Fusobacterium nucleatum] - F. nucleatum can bind to the salivary protein statherin via FomA, which functions in biofilm formation and is known to bind especially to P. gingivalis
  • [#Pancreatic adenoma] - P. gingivalis has also been reported to be dominantly enriched in patients with pancreatic adenomas and possibly correlated with PDAC disease progression
  • [#Alzheimer’s disease] - patients with AD exhibited higher blood levels of anti-P. gingivalis IgG > is associated with specific #Cognitive impairment
  • [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Lipopolysaccharide] - intraperitoneally injection of P. gingivalis LPS led to a reduction in the expression of #Neprilysin in the hippocampus > lower levels of #Neprilysin have been associated with increased Aβ accumulation in AD
  • [#Amyloid-beta] - the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y produced Aβ40 and Aβ42 in response to P. gingivalis, which occurred through the cleavage of the #Amyloid-β protein precursor in vitro
  • - the administration of P gingivalis or its #Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pro-inflammatory responses and Aβ production in the brain, impairing cognitive performance in Sprague Dawley rats,
  • [1.21] [#Fusobacterium nucleatum, #Prevotella intermedia, #Tannerella forsythia, #Treponema denticola
    - P. gingivalis, T. denticola, T. forsythia, P. intermedia, F. nucleatum and #Filifactor alocis are traditionally recognized as major pathogens responsible for #Periodontal disease

References Notes

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