Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Natural Med. Cond. ⇒ Pregnancy {40000317}

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Natural Med. Cond.
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  • [1.1
    The amounts of anti-inflammatory butyrate-producer commensal bacteria present in non-pregnant women gut microbiota decrease while bacteria associated with pro-inflammatory responses, such as Proteobacteria, increase during pregnancy. - Bacterial diversity tends to be reduced in vaginal microbiota during pregnancy while increasing vaginal Streptococci along with several specific Lactobacilli strains, which are thought to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria, as well as to help human digestion, and influence host innate and adaptive immune system responses. - The gut microbiota shifts substantially throughout the progression of the pregnancy and is characterized by reduced individual richness (alpha-diversity) and increased inter-subject beta-diversity. - During the first trimester, the gut microbiota pattern is similar in many aspects to that of healthy non-pregnant women, showing a predominance of Firmicutes, mainly Clostridiales, over Bacteroidetes. -Then, maternal gut microbiota declines in butyrate-producing bacteria, while Bifidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and lactic acid-producing bacteria increase from the first to the third trimester, when the microbiota resembles an unpredictably disease-associated dysbiosis that differs greatly among normal pregnancies. - During normal pregnancy, the composition of the vaginal microbiota changes as a function of gestational age, with an increase in the relative abundance for Lactobacillus spp., such as L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. gasserii, L. vaginalis, and a decrease in anaerobe or strict anaerobe microbial species, such as Atopobium, Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardenerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobilincus
  • [1.8] [#Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)
    - Probiotic supplementation > significantly reduced the severity of nausea, vomiting, constipation, and improved life quality in pregnant women. - Probiotic intake increased fecal bsh (bile salt hydrolase) > free #Bile Acids > facilitate intestinal mobility and metabolism > associated with lower vomiting scores.
  • [1.9] [#Cesarean section, #Vaginally delivery
  • [#Bifidobacterium breve] - in pregnant women, #Bifidobacterium represents a key beneficial microbiota genus, with levels observed to increase across pregnancy. - using germ-free and specific-pathogen-free mice, we demonstrate that the bacterium #Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 modulates maternal body adaptations, placental structure and nutrient transporter capacity, with implications for fetal metabolism and growth
  • [1.6
    - he cervicovaginal microbiota becomes even more dominated by Lactobacillus during pregnancy, resulting in less diversified profiles than in non-pregnant women
  • - The cervicovaginal microbiota becomes even more dominated by Lactobacillus during pregnancy, resulting in less diversified profiles than in non-pregnant women
  • [1.7
    - There was a relative enrichment of taurine-conjugated compared to glycine-conjugated and non-conjugated #Bile Acids during pregnancy, accompanied by expansion of taurine respirer #Bilophila wadsworthia, which has been linked to colitis and glucose dysmetabolism
  • - These metabolites were consistently associated with higher relative abundance of #Methanobrevibacter smithii, which has been linked to improved energy harvest, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and diabetes
  • - Several species were enriched during pregnancy compared to the postpartum period including #Streptococcus salivarius and #Streptococcus parasanguinis. Both species are also prevalent members of the infant gut microbiome
  • [1.11] [#Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)] [#Branched-chain amino acids, #Short Chain Fatty Acid
    In GDM: - Isobutyric, isovaleric, valeric, and hexanoic acids were significantly higher in the GDM. - #Isobutyric acid significantly correlated with urea and blood glucose at 1 and 2 hours after OGTT; fasting blood glucose, blood glucose at 2 hours after OGTT. - urea/creatinine ratio positively correlated with #Valeric acid. - blood glucose at 2 hours after OGTT positively correlated with #Caproic acid. - white blood cell count positively correlated with #Propionic acid. - Significantly elevated #Isobutyric acid and isovaleric acid in pregnant women with GDM may be associated with insulin resistance caused by BCFAs.
  • [#Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP)] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] In the ICP - isobutyric acids levels were higher, while acetic, propionic, butyric, isovaleric, valeric, and hexanoic acids levels were significantly lower. - #Isobutyric acid and #Hexanoic acid showed significant correlations with each clinical indicator. - Hemoglobin, white blood cells count, albumin, gestational weeks at delivery, fetal birth weight, and BMI were positively correlated with #Hexanoic acid. - total BAs and ALT were negatively correlated with #Hexanoic acid - #Isobutyric acid showed the opposite trend with #Hexanoic acid. - #Valeric acid positively correlated with hemoglobin and negatively correlated with total BA and ALT. - #Caproic acid and #Isobutyric acid might be potential biomarkers
  • [#Preeclamsia (PE)] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] in PE: - #Acetic acid, #Propionic acid, #Isobutyric acid, and valeric acids levels were significantly higher in the PE group. - the systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, urea/creatinine ratio, and total BA of pregnant women significantly positively correlated with #Acetic acid, #Propionic acid, #Isobutyric acid, and #Valeric acid. - urea positively correlated with #Acetic acid and #Isobutyric acid. - white blood cell count and gestational age negatively correlated with #Acetic acid, #Propionic acid, #Isobutyric acid, and #Valeric acid. - total cholesterol negatively correlated with #Propionic acid and #Isobutyric acid. - the percentage of neutrophils and fetal birth weight negatively correlated with #Isobutyric acid and #Valeric acid. - #Acetic acid and #Propionic acid have high diagnostic value for PE.

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