Disease ⇒ CVD {40000183}

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Cardiovascular Disease

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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Choline > Elevated plasma levels of the gut microbe-dependent metabolite #TMAO > predict incident risk for CVD development independent of traditional risk factors.
  • [1.2] [#γ-butyrobetaine
    - #Meat-based diet > L-carnitine > Gut microbial transformation >intermediate γ-butyrobetaine (γBB) > trimethylamine (TMA) > TMAO - Plasma γBB levels in individuals > strongly associated with incident CVD event risks. - #Emergencia timonensis > metabolize γBB into TMA > complete the carnitine → γBB → TMA transformation > elevate TMAO levels > enhance thrombosis
  • [1.3] [#Fish consumption
    - Fish > rich in preformed #TMAO > greatest impact on circulating #TMAO concentrations; however, fish intake is associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease
  • [1.4] [#Dyslipidemia, #Postprandial lipidemia, #Diabetes Type 2] [#Berberine] [#Probiotic
    - Prob+BBR superior to BBR or Prob alone in improving postprandial total cholesterol (pTC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (pLDLc) levels with decrement of multiple species of postprandial lipidomic metabolites after 3 months follow-up. - This effect was linked to the changes of fecal #Bifidobacterium breve level responding to BBR alone or Prob+BBR treatment. - Four fadD genes encoding long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase > identified in the genome of this B. breve strain, and transcriptionally activated by BBR. - The activation of fadD by BBR could enhance FFA import and mobilization in B. breve and diliminish the intraluminal lipids for absorption to mediate the effect of Prob+BBR on PL.
  • [1.5] [#Reduction of salt intake
  • [1.6] [#Heart failure, #Hearth attack
  • [1.7] [#Indoxyl-3-sulfate
    - Indoxyl sulfate could promote vascular inflammation.
  • [1.8] [#Atherosclerosis
    - gut microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary #Phenylalanine into #Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is critical in #Phenylacetylglutamine (PAGln) production, a metabolite linked to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). - PPFOR is the main contributor for PAA production in #Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. - PPDC plays an important role in PAA generation in #Proteus mirabilis. - PPFOR and PPDC contribute to PAA production and PAGln formation in colonized hosts. - Gut microbial ppdc and ppfor homolog abundances are each associated with ASCVD in humans.
  • [1.9
    - #Quercetin, a flavonol from #Apple intake, also found in oregano, has been noted to extend preventative effects of cardiovascular disease in individuals at risk of the disease
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] [#Probiotic, #Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)] - Short-chain fatty acids and secondary #Bile Acids can decrease #Cholesterol levels by regulating #Cholesterol metabolism. - Microbial #Bile Salt hydrolases can increase #Cholesterol disposal rates by accelerating its conversion to #Bile Acids. - Probiotics from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are efficient reducers of #Cholesterol levels in clinical studies. - Several candidate next-generation probiotics, including #Akkermansia muciniphila, #Bacteroides spp., #Clostridium spp., #Christensenella minuta, Eubacterium spp., and #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, have been shown to decrease #Cholesterol levels in human or animal studies.
  • [1.11] [#TMAO] [#Tomato
  • [1.12
    - Patients with CAD had lower concentrations of #Propionate compared to patients without CAD. - increase of #Propionate concentration was associated with reduced risk for CAD. - #Propionate serum concentrations elicit an immunomodulation with increases of regulatory T cells.
  • [1.13] [#Atherosclerosis] [#Campylobacter rectus, #Porphyromonas endodontalis, #Porphyromonas gingivalis, #Prevotella intermedia, #Prevotella nigrescens
    - 23 oral commensal bacteria, either individually or in coexistence, within carotid endarterectomy biopsies from patients undergoing surgical procedures. Of these 23 bacteria, five were unique to coronary plaques, including P. gingivalis, P. endodontalis, P. intermedia, C. rectus, and P. nigrescens.
  • [1.14] [#Atherosclerosis] [#Lipopolysaccharide, #TMA, #TMAO
  • [1.15] [#Hearth attack] [#Ceramides
  • [1.16
    - Twenty-three bacterial species belonging to the subgingival plaque bacterial complexes were also identified in the blood of individuals from both the groups; #Fusobacterium nucleatum was significantly less frequent in patients with CAD
  • [1.17] [#Periodontal abscess
  • [1.18] [#Obesity] [#Inulin-Type Fructans
    - Addition of ITF to the #Plant-based diet reduced microbial diversity and selectively increased #Bifidobacterium and #Faecalibacterium. -- The change in the latter was significantly associated with higher values of insulin and HOMA-IR and lower HDL #Cholesterol. - The LDL:HDL ratio and the concentrations of IL-10, MCP-1 and TNFα were significantly elevated in the ITF-subgroup.
  • [1.19] [#Exercise training, #Western-style diet
    - voluntary exercise curbs #TMAO elevation and decreases myocardial inflammation and #Fibrosis, leading to the prevention of cardiac dysfunction in western diet-induced #Obesity
  • [#Streptococcus] - CACS-associated species was negatively associated with the microbially derived #Tryptophan metabolite #Indole #Propionate, a metabolite that has been found inversely associated with atherosclerotic coronary disease in humans and reduced progression of #Atherosclerosis in mice.
  • [1.21] [#Diabetes Type 2, #Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome
    - people with DM who developed OSA were at a greater risk of developing CVDs by over 50%
  • [#Diabetes Type 2, #Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome] - OSA is associated with repetitive episodes of hypoxia–reoxygenation, triggering a cascade of metabolic and inflammatory changes that exacerbate pre-existing metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetes. - OSA is linked with impaired #Glucose metabolism and increased insulin resistance, leading to further inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and the development of atherosclerosis and CVDs. - Individuals with diabetes who developed OSA face a greater risk of peripheral neuropathy (PN), AF, diabetic foot disease (DFD), CKD, and all-cause mortality when compared with diabetics without OSA.
  • [#Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome] - OSA activates therenin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) system, leading to an increase in BP and causing volume overload, contributing to the development of #Hypertension and CVDs. - OSA is associated with increased sympathetic nervous system activity, which can further exacerbate #Hypertension and CVD risk in diabetes. - Sympathetic activation can increase heart rate and vasoconstriction, leading to arrhythmias.
  • [1.22] [#Hypercholesterolaemia] [#Enterococcus faecium, #Lactobacillus paracasei] [#Cholesterol
    - E. faecium strain 132 and L. paracasei strain 201 may alleviate hypercholesterolemia in rats
  • [#Obesity] - oral administration of #Propyl propane thiosulfinate (PTS) in a dose-dependent manner prevented the weight gain and metabolic dysfunction caused by a hypercaloric diet.
  • [1.23] [#Prevotella copri
    - P. copri was positively associated with high levels of low-density lipoprotein, which is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases
  • [1.24] [#Stroke] [#Food emulsifiers
    - positive associations between higher intakes of total cellulose emulsifiers (specifically E460 and E466) and total monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids (specifically E472b and E472c) and CVD risk. - Higher intakes of total celluloses (specifically E460 and E466) and total monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids (specifically E472c) as well as trisodium phosphate (E339) were positively associated with risk of coronary heart disease, - total monoglycerides and diglycerides of fatty acids (specifically E472b) were positively associated with risk of cerebrovascular disease.
  • [1.25] [#Coronary artery disease] [#Phenylacetylglutamine
    - the association between PAG and incident CAD is independent of inflammation, as the association remained significant after adjustment for CRP in MDC-CC.
  • [#Phenylacetylglutamine] - patients with #Chronic kidney disease (CKD) circulating PAG was found to be associated with risk of future CVD
  • [#Phenylacetylglutamine] [#Gender] - PAG has previously been shown to correlate with increased arterial stiffness in women [20]. Given the association between arterial stiffness and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it is possible that the association between PAG and incident CAD could be driven by arterial stiffness.

References Notes

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Common References

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