Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Akkermansia muciniphila ⇒ Akkermansia {10000154}

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Akkermansia muciniphila


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Mucin-degrading, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-adipose, Lipid metabolism, Mucin-inducer (P. Gablet C)


- Akkermansia muciniphila > makes a molecule called nicotinamide, also known as vitamin B3 > travel to the brain and improve symptoms of motor neuron disease in mouse models.

- Akkermansia muciniphila is the most important species of verrucoma microbes for the human microbiome and makes up about 3% of the bacteria occurring in the intestine.
- As the name suggests, it has something to do with the mucous membrane (mucus layer). Not only is it colonized by the bacterium, it is also broken down. The breakdown of the mucus has a positive side effect: The intestinal cells are stimulated to produce more mucus and the healthy intestine is maintained. The degraded slime serves as an energy source for the butyrate former F. prausnitzii.
- An early colonization of the intestine comes about through breastfeeding with breast milk, but the concentration in the intestine decreases with age. There are also geographical differences: Europeans showed a higher concentration compared with Chinese.
- There is no evidence of harmful properties, rather A. muciniphila shows a significant contribution to a healthy intestine.
- In 2017, a reduced concentration was found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. It is also said to have a high probiotic potential.
- One study found that supplementation reduced body weight, insulin concentration, total cholesterol and various inflammation markers in overweight and obese people. In fact, only pasteurized (killed) bacteria were used for this. The positive effect is attributed to a certain protein that docks to an important immune receptor.
-However, too much supplementation can lead to too much mucus being broken down and its protective function greatly reduced.
Although it shows many positive effects, it is not yet approved for use in probiotics. A diet rich in fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase the amount of Akkermansia and other probiotic bacteria (e.g. L. plantarum, B. breve) promote the growth conditions in the intestine.

- Akkermansia muciniphila:
- is a mucin degraders, an important role in the preservation of the integrity of the gut mucus layer, thus limiting the risk
of systemic inflammation.
- Stimulate Mucin production by Gut Lumen Cells
- Enhance Adipose Markers
- Is increased by Probiotics and dietry fibers

-The colon has two distinct mucus structures: the outer layer is colonized by mucin-degrading bacteria and is characterized by the presence of Bacteroides acidifaciens, Bacteroides fragilis, Bifidobacteriaceae and Akkermansia muciniphila and the inner layer and crypts are penetrated at low density by a more restricted community that includes Bacteroides fragilis and Acinetobacter spp. (2)

Shared Notes

  • [1.7
    - A. muciniphila exerts its beneficial effects on metabolism independently from generalized changes in the plasmatic eCBome mediators in the context of the metabolic syndrome.
    - Oral supplementation with the alive bacterium significantly prevented the reduction of 2-PG and 1-PG levels observed upon the progression of the metabolic syndrome.
  • [1.38
    - The gut bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila is associated with protection from obesity, enhanced wound healing, and augmented antitumor responses.
    - This microbe induces antigen-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies generated by B cells with CD4+ T cell help.
    - This is in contrast to most anticommensal responses, which involve the T cell–independent production of IgA antibodies.
    - In a gnotobiotic setting in which all components of the microbiome are defined, A. muciniphila–specific T cells expanded only when A. muciniphila was present.
  • [1.39
    - The genus Akkermansia belongs to the Verrucomicrobiaceae and is often associated with a healthy gut microbiome. Due to its low proportion in IBD and other metabolic diseases, anti-inflammatory properties are ascribed to this genus in IBD.
  • [1.40
    - A sugar-rich diet favors the increase of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucolytic bacterium. The mucus layer separates luminal bacteria from intestinal epithelium: A thinner mucus layer allows bacteria to come in contact with the epithelial cells, eliciting an inflammatory response.
  • [1.35
    - The abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, as a key player of propionate production, is associated with the richness of the gut microbiota in patients with BC
  • [1.37
    - A. muciniphila > vitamin B1 productio > may influence blood pressure.
  • [1.41
    - Akkermansia muciniphila (which degrades human mucus), were more abundant in the industrialized samples than in the non-industrialized samples and the palaeofaeces.
  • [1.42
    - Mucin degrading bacteria such as Akkermansia mucinophila, thrive on secreted carbohydrates provided by host cells.
  • [1.43
    - A novel protein (P9) secreted by A. muciniphila stimulates GLP-1 secretion, thereby adding new insight to the biomolecule era to treat metabolic diseases.
    - The outer membrane protein of A. muciniphila Amuc_1100 has been shown to partially replicate the beneficial effects.
  • [1.47
    - A low fecal α-tocopherol, as well as a high abundance of Akkemansia muciniphila, > associated with high vomiting scores and times, respectively.
  • [1.32
    - Vitamin D supplementation could regulate the steady state of intestinal flora in colorectal cancer (CRC) mice and regulate the integrity of the Akkermansia muciniphila-mediated intestinal barrier, thereby playing a role in the reversal of CRC.
  • [1.48
    - C tropicalis > induces dysbiosis that involves changes in the presence of mucin-degrading bacteria Akkermansia muciniphila and Ruminococcus gnavus > leading to altered tight junction protein expression with increased intestinal permeability > followed by induction of robust Th1/Th17 responses > lead to an accelerated proinflammatory phenotype in experimental colitic mice.
  • [1.34
    - Oral treatment of A. muciniphila or A. muciniphila-mediated palmitoleic acid strongly inhibits tuberculosis infection through epigenetic inhibition of tumour necrosis factor in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • - single-nucleotide polymorphism rs2257167 ‘G’ allele of type I interferon receptor 1 (encoded by IFNAR1 in humans) contributes to stronger type I interferon signalling, impaired colonization and abundance of A. muciniphila, reduced palmitoleic acid production, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor, and more severe tuberculosis disease in humans and transgenic mice
  • [1.26
    - abundance of A. muciniphila was significantly decreased in patients with psoriasis.
    - In patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, serum markers of intestinal barrier integrity injury increased.
    - intestinal fatty acid binding protein, a biomarker of intestinal barrier damage, significantly elevated in patients with psoriasis.
  • [1.36
    - the tested consortium was composed of four butyrate producers (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Butyricicocccus pullicaecorum, Roseburia inulinivorans, and Anaerostipes caccae) and five propionate producers (Roseburia inulinivorans, Akkermansia muciniphila, Phocaeicola vulgatus, Veillonella parvula, and Blautia obeum)
  • [1.20
    - In healthy human subjects Akkermansia muciniphila was associated to low body weight, low body fat proportion, reduced adipose tissue inflammation and reduced insulin resistance.
  • - several bacteria such as: Methanobrevibacter smithii, Bifidobacterium spp., Bifidobacterium animalis, Escherichia coli, Akkermansia muciniphila, Anaerotruncus colihominis and bacteria of the Bacteroidetes strain have the capability to reduce the production of high-calorie substances and therefore also influence the caloric intake. A relatively low frequency of these bacteria correlates with increased body weight, as we have also observed.
  • [1.31
    - Cranberry extract, a rich source of polyphenols, induced improvements in metabolism (e.g., reduced visceral obesity and improved insulin sensitivity) in mice on a high-fat high-sucrose diet that were associated with an increase in Akkermansia muciniphila
  • [1.50
    - For instance, gram negative bacteria as Proteobacteria and Akkermansia muciniphila (Verrucomicrobia), which use mucus as a carbon and Nitrogen source, adhere and reside within the mucus layer.

Common References