Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine
Sign in

Akkermansia ⇒ Akkermansia muciniphila {10000154}

Record Keys

Akkermansia muciniphila


Initialisation date:


Meta Information

Zone:[  ]
Enzyme:[  ]
Mucin-degrading, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-adipose, Lipid metabolism, Mucin-inducer (P. Gablet C)


- Akkermansia muciniphila > makes a molecule called nicotinamide, also known as vitamin B3 > travel to the brain and improve symptoms of motor neuron disease in mouse models.

- Akkermansia muciniphila is the most important species of verrucoma microbes for the human microbiome and makes up about 3% of the bacteria occurring in the intestine.
- As the name suggests, it has something to do with the mucous membrane (mucus layer). Not only is it colonized by the bacterium, it is also broken down. The breakdown of the mucus has a positive side effect: The intestinal cells are stimulated to produce more mucus and the healthy intestine is maintained. The degraded slime serves as an energy source for the butyrate former F. prausnitzii.
- An early colonization of the intestine comes about through breastfeeding with breast milk, but the concentration in the intestine decreases with age. There are also geographical differences: Europeans showed a higher concentration compared with Chinese.
- There is no evidence of harmful properties, rather A. muciniphila shows a significant contribution to a healthy intestine.
- In 2017, a reduced concentration was found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. It is also said to have a high probiotic potential.
- One study found that supplementation reduced body weight, insulin concentration, total cholesterol and various inflammation markers in overweight and obese people. In fact, only pasteurized (killed) bacteria were used for this. The positive effect is attributed to a certain protein that docks to an important immune receptor.
-However, too much supplementation can lead to too much mucus being broken down and its protective function greatly reduced.
Although it shows many positive effects, it is not yet approved for use in probiotics. A diet rich in fiber and polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase the amount of Akkermansia and other probiotic bacteria (e.g. L. plantarum, B. breve) promote the growth conditions in the intestine.

- Akkermansia muciniphila:
- is a mucin degraders, an important role in the preservation of the integrity of the gut mucus layer, thus limiting the risk
of systemic inflammation.
- Stimulate Mucin production by Gut Lumen Cells
- Enhance Adipose Markers
- Is increased by Probiotics and dietry fibers

-The colon has two distinct mucus structures: the outer layer is colonized by mucin-degrading bacteria and is characterized by the presence of Bacteroides acidifaciens, Bacteroides fragilis, Bifidobacteriaceae and Akkermansia muciniphila and the inner layer and crypts are penetrated at low density by a more restricted community that includes Bacteroides fragilis and Acinetobacter spp. (2)

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - A. muciniphila exerts its beneficial effects on metabolism independently from generalized changes in the plasmatic eCBome mediators in the context of the metabolic syndrome. - Oral supplementation with the alive bacterium significantly prevented the reduction of 2-PG and 1-PG levels observed upon the progression of the metabolic syndrome.
  • [1.2
    - The gut bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila is associated with protection from obesity, enhanced wound healing, and augmented antitumor responses. - This microbe induces antigen-specific immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies generated by B cells with CD4+ T cell help. - This is in contrast to most anticommensal responses, which involve the T cell–independent production of IgA antibodies. - In a gnotobiotic setting in which all components of the microbiome are defined, A. muciniphila–specific T cells expanded only when A. muciniphila was present.
  • [1.3] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - The genus Akkermansia belongs to the Verrucomicrobiaceae and is often associated with a healthy gut microbiome. Due to its low proportion in IBD and other metabolic diseases, anti-inflammatory properties are ascribed to this genus in IBD.
  • [1.4] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - A #Sugar-rich diet favors the increase of Akkermansia muciniphila, a mucolytic bacterium. The mucus layer separates luminal bacteria from intestinal epithelium: A thinner mucus layer allows bacteria to come in contact with the epithelial cells, eliciting an inflammatory response.
  • [1.5
    - The abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, as a key player of #Propionate production, is associated with the richness of the gut microbiota in patients with #Breast cancer]
  • [1.6] [#Hypertension] [#Thiamin
    - A. muciniphila > vitamin B1 productio > may influence blood pressure.
  • [1.7] [#Industrial populations
    - Akkermansia muciniphila (which degrades human mucus), were more abundant in the industrialized samples than in the non-industrialized samples and the palaeofaeces.
  • [1.8] [#Carbohydrate diet
    - Mucin degrading bacteria such as Akkermansia mucinophila, thrive on secreted carbohydrates provided by host cells.
  • [1.9
    - A novel protein (P9) secreted by A. muciniphila stimulates GLP-1 secretion, thereby adding new insight to the biomolecule era to treat metabolic diseases. - The outer membrane protein of A. muciniphila Amuc_1100 has been shown to partially replicate the beneficial effects.
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease] - Seven bacterial species correlated with expression levels of Th17 effector cytokines, IL-17A and IL-17F. - The seven associated species include #Ruminococcus gnavus, #Escherichia coli, #Lachnospiraceae bacterium, #Clostridium hathewayi, #Bacteroides faecis, #Bacteroides vulgatus, and Akkermansia muciniphila. All of the species were positively associated with IL-17A/ IL-17F except Akkermansia muciniphila, suggesting these species are proinflammatory, while Akkermansia muciniphila is anti-inflammatory.
  • [1.11
  • [1.12
  • [1.13
  • [1.14] [#Excessive vomiting
    - A low fecal α-tocopherol, as well as a high abundance of Akkemansia muciniphila, > associated with high vomiting scores and times, respectively.
  • [1.15
    - #Vitamin D supplementation could regulate the steady state of intestinal flora in #Colorectal cancer (CRC) mice and regulate the integrity of the Akkermansia muciniphila-mediated intestinal barrier, thereby playing a role in the reversal of CRC.
  • [1.16] [#Colitis, #Crohn’s disease] [#Candida tropicalis
    - C. tropicalis > induces dysbiosis that involves changes in the presence of mucin-degrading bacteria Akkermansia muciniphila and #Ruminococcus gnavus > leading to altered tight junction protein expression with increased intestinal permeability > followed by induction of robust Th1/Th17 responses > lead to an accelerated proinflammatory phenotype in experimental colitic mice.
  • [1.17] [#Mycobacterium tuberculosis] [#Probiotic (A. muciniphila)
    - Oral treatment of A. muciniphila or A. muciniphila-mediated #Palmitoleic acid strongly inhibits #Tuberculosis infection through epigenetic inhibition of tumour necrosis factor in mice infected with Mycobacterium #Tuberculosis.
  • - single-nucleotide polymorphism #rs2257167 ‘G’ allele of type I interferon receptor 1 (encoded by IFNAR1 in humans) contributes to stronger type I interferon signalling, impaired colonization and abundance of A. muciniphila, reduced #Palmitoleic acid production, higher levels of tumour necrosis factor, and more severe #Tuberculosis disease in humans and transgenic mice
  • [1.18
    - abundance of A. muciniphila was significantly decreased in patients with #Psoriasis. - In patients with moderate-to-severe #Psoriasis, serum markers of intestinal barrier integrity injury increased. - intestinal fatty acid binding protein, a biomarker of intestinal barrier damage, significantly elevated in patients with #Psoriasis.
  • [1.19
    - the tested consortium was composed of four butyrate producers (#Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, #Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, #Roseburia inulinivorans, and #Anaerostipes caccae) and five propionate producers (#Roseburia inulinivorans, Akkermansia muciniphila, #Bacteroides vulgatus, #Veillonella parvula, and #Blautia obeum)
  • [#Diabetes Type 2, #Obesity] - In healthy human subjects Akkermansia muciniphila was associated to low body weight, low body fat proportion, reduced adipose tissue inflammation and reduced insulin resistance.
  • [#Obesity] [#Lactobacillus animalis] - several bacteria such as: #Methanobrevibacter smithii, #Bifidobacterium spp., #Bifidobacterium animalis, #Escherichia coli, Akkermansia muciniphila, #Anaerotruncus colihominis and bacteria of the Bacteroidetes strain have the capability to reduce the production of high-calorie substances and therefore also influence the caloric intake. A relatively low frequency of these bacteria correlates with increased body weight, as we have also observed.
  • [1.21
    - #Cranberry extract, a rich source of #Polyphenols, induced improvements in metabolism (e.g., reduced visceral obesity and improved insulin sensitivity) in mice on a high-fat high-sucrose diet that were associated with an increase in Akkermansia muciniphila
  • [1.22] [#Obesity
  • [1.23
    - #a15:0-i15:0 PE > a lipid from A. muciniphila’s cell membrane that recapitulates the immunomodulatory activity of A. muciniphila in cell-based assays. - #a15:0-i15:0 PE >The isolated immunogen, a diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine with two branched chains.
  • [1.24
    - Mucin degradation pathways were strongly conserved amongst all isolates, illustrating the exemplary niche adaptation of A. muciniphila to the mucin interface. - none of these seem to pose strain-specific risks in terms of their antibiotic resistance patterns nor a significant risk for the horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance determinants.
  • [1.25] [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Secondary bile acids, #Short Chain Fatty Acid] [#Oral administration of Metformin
    - oral metformin has been shown to alter gut microbiome composition in obese adults with T2D, which was associated with secondary BA and FXR changes, resulting in improved insulin sensitivity - Metformin promotes colonization by SCFA-producing bacteria such as Akkermansia, Several studies of different ethnic populations with T2D and healthy individuals have demonstrated that metformin alters gut microbiome composition and is associated with changes in SCFA, BA, and C-peptide levels.
  • [1.26
    - GutAlive maintained extremely #Oxygen sensitive (EOS) populations that were lost in conventional stool containers, and thus viability of species such as as Akkermansia muciniphila, #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and a novel member of the #Clostridiales order was kept.
  • [1.27
    - #Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Akkermansia muciniphila, Ruminoccous gnavus, #Bacteroides fragilis, and #Bifidobacterium bifidium are predominant bacteria within the mucus layer that utilize #Glycans as their energy source by glycosidase, sulphatase, and sialidase enzymes
  • [1.28
    TLR4 interacts with Akkermansia muciniphila to regulate RORγt+ regulatory T-cell responses and susceptibility to colon inflammation.
  • [1.29] [#Probiotic (A. muciniphila)
    - Oral supplementation with A. muciniphila after FMT with nonresponder feces restored the efficacy of PD-1 blockade in an interleukin-12–dependent manner by increasing the recruitment of CCR9+CXCR3+CD4+ T lymphocytes into mouse tumor beds.
  • [#CVD] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] [#Probiotic, #Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)] - Short-chain fatty acids and secondary #Bile Acids can decrease #Cholesterol levels by regulating #Cholesterol metabolism. - Microbial #Bile Salt hydrolases can increase #Cholesterol disposal rates by accelerating its conversion to #Bile Acids. - Probiotics from the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are efficient reducers of #Cholesterol levels in clinical studies. - Several candidate next-generation probiotics, including Akkermansia muciniphila, #Bacteroides spp., #Clostridium spp., #Christensenella minuta, Eubacterium spp., and #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, have been shown to decrease #Cholesterol levels in human or animal studies.
  • [1.31
    - In #Pancreatic Cancer > Several enriched species previously associated with enhanced tumor immune response were observed including #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia muciniphila.
  • [1.32] [#Anorexia nervosa] [#Bacteroides finegoldii
    - Bacterial organisms with significant growth retardation, among AN case individuals included #Alistipes finegoldii, Akkermansia muciniphila, #Eubacterium siraeum, #Coprococcus catus, SS3/4, and #Odoribacter splanchnicus.
  • [1.33] [#Bacteroides-Prevotella group, #Clostridium III
    - in neurodegenerative disease > #Streptococcus, #Shigella, #Desulfovibrio, Christensenelia, and Akkermansia muciniphila have the #Putrescine III synthesis pathway and belong to the elevated microbes group.
  • - #Parabacteroides distasonis and Akkermansia muciniphila have the highest PS for producing #Propionate through the fermentation of #Pyruvate.
  • [1.34] [#American Heart Association Diet, #Mediterranean Ketogen Diet
    - Many of the top microbes associated with MMKD are of the Akkermansia taxa, while #Veillonella, #Sutterella, and #Eubacteria are associated with AHAD. - higher relative abundances of Akkermansia muciniphila on the MMKD and higher relative abundances of #Veillonella sp. ACP1 on the AHAD
  • [#Mediterranean Ketogen Diet] - dietary interventions such as the MMKD may decrease #GABA levels in the opposite direction through its associated increases in #GABA-regulating microbes such as Akkermansia muciniphila.
  • [#Alzheimer’s disease, #Cognitive impairment, #Mild Cognitive Impairment] [#Mediterranean Ketogen Diet] - Participants with MCI on the MMKD had lower levels of #GABA-producing microbes #Alistipes sp. CAG:514 and #GABA, and higher levels of #GABA-regulating microbes Akkermansia muciniphila.
  • [1.35] [#Natural Small intestine Microbiome] [#Proton pump inhibitors
    - PPI > induce SI duodenal microbiota dysbiosis, characterized by an increase in Akkermansia muciniphila and #Porphyromonas endodontalis and a decrease in #Enterococcaceae, #Coprococcus, #Enterobacteriaceae, and #Synergistes species
  • [1.36
    - Oral supplementation with #Cranberry #Polyphenols (CP) selectively and robustly (five-fold) increases the relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila.
  • [1.37] [#Boswellic Acid
    - Although AKBA inhibited A. muciniphila in vitro, it is possible AKBA removed other bacteria in the gut, enabling A. muciniphila to opportunistically grow. When less bacteria are present surrounding the mucin layer of the colon, more mucin is available for A. muciniphila to thrive on, increasing the relative abundance
  • [1.38] [#Palmitoleic acid
    - POA significantly upregulated the transcriptional signatures of cell division and biosynthetic process of Akkermansia muciniphila, selectively increased the growth and abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in gut microbiota.
  • [#Palmitoleic acid] - co-administration of POA with Akkermansia muciniphila showed significant synergistic protections against #Colitis in mice.
  • [1.39] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - Conditions like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), #Salmonella typhimurium infection or post-antibiotic reconstitution may not benefit from #Akkermansia supplementation. - using #Akkermansia in patients with endocrine and gynecological disorders—such as #Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or #Endometriosis—that have a higher risk of developing IBD, should be critically evaluated. - the gut microbiota of patients suffering from #Parkinson’s Disease or #Multiple Sclerosis exhibits a characteristic signature of #Akkermansia municiphila abundance.
  • - #Melatonin administration in animals helped reduce dysbiosis due to #Sleep restriction. - In one of the studies, Akkermansia muciniphila and #Lactobacilli species were increased in the #Melatonin-treated animals.
  • [1.41
    - Akkermansia muciniphila has been associated with a healthy intestinal microbiota and in known to increase in abundance in response to #Physical activity.
  • [1.42] [#Food emulsifiers
    - Daily oral administration of A. muciniphila prevented phenotypic consequences of consumption of both carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polysorbate 80 (P80), including hyperphagia, weight gain and dysglycaemia. - A. muciniphila administration also counteracted the low-grade intestinal inflammation-induced CMC and P80. - A. muciniphila supplementation prevented the proximal impacts of CMC and P80 on gut microbiota that are thought to drive low-grade chronic inflammation and metabolic dysregulations. - A. muciniphila prevented alterations in species composition and encroachment of gut microbiota that were otherwise induced by CMC and P80.
  • [1.43
    - Akkermansia muciniphila is a mucus-degrading member of the #Verrucomicrobia found in the human GI tract. - A. muciniphila represents from 1 to 4% of the bacterial population in the colon.
  • [1.44] [#Metabolic syndrome
    - mucin degradation products accumulate in internal compartments within A. muciniphila in a process that requires genes encoding pili and a periplasmic protein complex, which we term mucin utilization locus (MUL) genes. - MUL genes were required for intestinal colonization in mice but only when competing with other microbes. In germ-free mice, MUL genes were required for A. muciniphila to repress genes important for #Cholesterol biosynthesis in the colon.
  • [1.45] [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease
    - CD-HPA microbiota from colonized mice was characterized by a decrease in known beneficial #Bacteria such as Akkermansia muciniphila, #Alistipes putredinis, and #Ruminococcus bromii, previously shown to be reduced in IBD patients.
  • [1.46] [#Immune checkpoint inhibitor
    - The most prominent taxa associated with good response to ICI across different #Cancer types are #Phascolarctobacterium, #Bifidobacterium, A. muciniphila and #Rothia.
  • [#Faecalibacterium prausnitzii] - in #Colorectal cancer > the relative abundances of #Fusobacterium, #Porphyromonas and A. muciniphila are increased, and F. prausnitzii is decreased compared to healthy controls.
  • [#Obesity] - A. muciniphila abundance is inversely correlated with total fat mass in animal models and subcutaneous fat (rather than total body fat) in human studies.
  • [#Obesity] - In humans, higher muscle mass and a leaner body composition (i.e., relatively lower fat mass), is associated with enrichment of #Akkermansiaceae family members in the gut microbiome , including A. muciniphila.
  • [1.47
    - greater increase in #Akkermansia’s abundance in #Aspirin vs placebo > #Aspirin users, who do not have severe upper Gl complications, are likely to have increased mucin levels that contribute to host defense and potentially to a decrease in inflammation.
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - higher levels in Akkermansia muciniphila among those with CRC. - It is possible that increased levels of Akkermansia muciniphila among CRC patients compared to cancer-free individuals may be related to an increased production of mucus which serves as a major nutrient source for this bacterium.
  • [1.48
    - Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) and #Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (B. theta), have glycoproteases that can degrade the protein core of the mucin domains with shortened #O-Glycans, but it remains unclear if any of these proteases can cleave intact MUC2.
  • [1.49] [#Systemic lupus erythematosus
    - peptide “DGQFCM” mimicking human Fas antigen from Akkermansia muciniphila specifically binds to the IgG produced by memory B cells from lupus patients
  • [#Immune checkpoint inhibitor] - increased abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, #Phascolarctobacterium, #Bifidobacterium and #Rothia in stool are consistently associated with better response to ICI treatment. - A. muciniphila is also more abundant in stool in patients with higher muscle mass, and muscle mass is a strong positive prognostic marker in #Cancer, including after ICI treatment.
  • [1.51
    - Some specific gut microbes, such as Akkermansia muciniphila, #Bacteroides vulgatus, #Bacteroides dorei, and #Roseburia intestinalis are associated with the development of #Atherosclerosis.
  • [1.52
    - #Propionate is produced by some #Firmicutes, #Bacteroidetes, and #Verrucomicrobia, especially Akkermansia muciniphila
  • [1.53] [#Cancer, #Prostate cancer
    - Akkermansia muciniphila extracellular vesicles interact with CD8-positive T-cells and macrophages to stimulate anti-tumor immunity
  • [1.54
    - For instance, gram negative bacteria as Proteobacteria and Akkermansia muciniphila (Verrucomicrobia), which use mucus as a carbon and Nitrogen source, adhere and reside within the mucus layer.
  • [1.55] [#Ruminococcaceae] [#ICI therapy
    - #Bacteroidetes remained the most common gut bacteria with increased levels of Ruminococcacae and Akkermansia muciniphila after treatment which is in contrast to patients who did not respond to anti-PD-1 therapy and had increasing levels of #Proteobacteria after treatment,
  • [1.56] [#Parkinson’s Disease] [#Alpha-synuclein
    - A. muciniphila (typical strain) induced mitochondrial calcium overload and α-synuclein aggregation in an enteroendocrine cell line
  • [1.57] [#Parkinson’s Disease] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - excessive and repeated antibiotic consumption leads to enrichment of other PD-relevant taxa such as A. muciniphila, and it is linked to PD risk.
  • [1.58] [#Low fibre Diet
    - In the absence of A. muciniphila, the relative abundances of the three other mucin-degrading bacteria, #Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, #Bacteroides caccae and #Barnesiella intestinihominis, increased in either both dietary groups or in Fibre Free fed mice
  • [#Allergy, #Food Allergy] - A. muciniphila was reported to be decreased in the faecal microbiota of severe asthmatic patients, and oral supplementation of A. muciniphila to the native complex gut microbiota was able to modulate the immunophenotype and protect mice from allergic airway inflammation. - By contrast, the abundance of A. muciniphila or its family #Verrucomicrobiaceae has been reported to be transiently increased in the faeces of food allergic #Infants by the age of 13–18 months
  • [#Allergy] - A. muciniphila in the maintenance of the allergic type-2 response by promoting Th2 cells under fibre-rich conditions and type-2 innate cells under fibre deprivation.
  • [#Allergy] - the enhanced mucin-degrading activity of A. muciniphila in FF mice may be required as an additional microbial trigger to promote the breakdown of oral tolerance, probably through increased innate type-2 responses.
  • - The presence of A. muciniphila within the microbiota, combined with fibre deprivation, resulted in stronger anti-commensal IgE coating and innate type-2 immune responses, which worsened symptoms of #Food Allergy.
  • [1.59
    - A. muciniphila is known for its ability to degrade and consume the mucin layer of the gut, but sometimes it can also metabolize other nutrients, including plant carbohydrates
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - the pro-inflammatory nature of a potential pathobiont such as A. muciniphila is determined by the presence or absence of other beneficial bacteria such as #Bifidobacterium spp., modulation of LPS biosynthesis, and immunostimulatory capacity
  • - microbiome of mice on a #Phytoestrogen-free diet resembled the microbiome of PwMS characterized by a higher abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila
  • [#Bilophila wadsworthia] [#Vitamin B12] - B12 biosynthesis genes were very common in gut microbes including B. wadsworthia, A. muciniphila, and #Escherichia/#Shigella
  • [#Flavonoid] - #Silymarin/#Silibinin > dietary flavonoids or #Polyphenols > increase of ASV5 (A. muciniphila)
  • [#Vitamin B12] - B12 producing capability of A. muciniphila
  • [1.61] [#Xanthohumol
    - some of the positive outcomes of XN are accomplished by increasing Akkermansia muciniphila, which we also found increased by TXN
  • [1.62] [#High Fat Diet
    - viable A. muciniphila treatment has been found to reverse high-fat-diet-induced metabolic disorders and increase endocannabinoid levels, which control inflammation and secretion of gut peptides.
  • [#Juvenile idiopathic arthritis] - ABIS JIA had higher abundance of #Acidaminococcales, #Prevotella 9, and #Veillonella parvula and lower abundance of #Coprococcus, #Subdoligranulum, #Phascolarctobacterium, #Dialister spp., #Bifidobacterium breve, #Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans, #Roseburia intestinalis, and Akkermansia muciniphila
  • [#Juvenile idiopathic arthritis] - A muciniphila, a bacterium shown to have numerous positive effects on intestinal homeostasis, epithelial development, and gut barrier function, was significantly reduced in #Infants with future JIA.

References Notes

[  ]

Common References