Disease ⇒ Severe Mental Disorders ⇒ Schizophrenia {40000115}

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- Host-genetic-driven increases in Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterobacteriales order were potentially related to a higher risk of SCZ, while Gammaproteobacteria class was related to a lower risk of SCZ
- Gut production of serotonin was potentially associated with a higher risk of SCZ.
- There is a strong relationship of lower platelet serotonin concentrations with depressive symptoms of SCZ.
- According to the principle of brain plasticity, glutamate signals are destroyed by serotonergic overdrive, leading to neuronal hypometabolism, synaptic atrophy, and gray matter loss in the end.
- Enterobacteriaceae family and Enterobacteriales order can produce SCFAs (e.g., acetic acid and formic acid) in carbohydrate fermentation, thus inducing serotonin biosynthesis by enterochromaffin cells which are the major producers of serotonin, and ultimately increasing the risk of SCZ.
- Porphyromonadaceae were associated with poor cognitive performance.
- Gut inflammation can induce activation of microglia and the kynurenine pathway, which activate systemic inflammation-inducing depressive or schizophrenic symptoms (1)

Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - The schizophrenia-associated bacterium #Streptococcus vestibularis, which contributed to the microbiota metagenomic-based discrimination of patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls, when transplanted to mice gut induced deficits in social behaviors, altering neurotransmitter levels in peripheral tissues of recipient animals.
  • [1.2] [#Clostridioides difficile
    - Schizophrenia and autism incidence has been found to be higher in the C. difficile diseased population. - This association was further explained by a #Phenylalanine derivative synthesized and released by the same bacteria in the gut that is known to regulate catecholamine levels in the brain.
  • - CD14 seropositivity is responsible for three times increase in the risk of having schizophrenia in comparison to control group. The same CD14 seropositivity was associated with #Gluten antibodies in newly diagnosed patients with schizophrenia
  • - Altered human gut microbiome may have a significant contribution to the NMDA (#N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor hypoactivity, as observed in patients with schizophrenia.
  • [1.3] [#Bacteriophage
    - Lactobacillus phiadh infects #Lactobacillus gasseri. - At least 1 match for Lactobacillus phage phiadh was found in 17 of 41 of PWS, as compared to 1 of 33 of controls. - The study also found that the level of Lactobacillus phiadh > correlated with an increased rate of comorbid immunological disorders in PWS. - The phage Lactobacillus phiadh modulates the level of its host bacterium, #Lactobacillus gasseri, which affects the host’s immune system.
  • [1.4
    - Fecal transplantation from schizophrenia patients to GF mice resulted in elevated levels of glutamine and #GABA in the hippocampus, and led to schizophrenia-related behaviors
  • [1.5
    - Elevated levels of #Glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid (#GABA) and reduced #Glutamate were observed in the hippocampus of germ-free mice that received fecal transplants from schizophrenic mice and showed schizophrenia-like behaviors.
  • [1.6] [#Cancer
    - #Lachnoclostridium depleted in other psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and #Autism and in patients with gastrointestinal tract neoplasms.
  • [1.7] [#Bipolar disorder, #Major depressive disorder
    - MDD was often characterized by higher #Alistipes and #Parabacteroides and lower #Prevotella; BD by higher #Bifidobacterium and #Oscillibacter; and SZ by higher #Prevotella and lower #Bacteroides, #Haemophilus, and #Streptococcus
  • [#Bipolar disorder, #Major depressive disorder] - Gut microbiota in BD, MDD and SZ > increase in #Eggerthella and #Lactobacillus, together with a decrease in #Coprococcus was common for the three conditions in comparison to controls.
  • [#Bipolar disorder, #Major depressive disorder] - MDD and SZ shared higher levels of #Escherichia/#Shigella and #Veillonella whereas increased #Megasphaera and lower #Roseburia are common for BD and SZ.
  • [#Bipolar disorder, #Major depressive disorder] [#Quinolinic acid, #kynurenine] - shift in the #Tryptophan metabolism from #Serotonin to the kyn pathway is associated with BD, MDD and SZ, but only in mood disorders (BD and MDD) there was a preferential metabolism of Kyn to the potentially neurotoxic QA.
  • [#Bipolar disorder] - BD and SZ are characterized by higher serum antibody levels to fungal pathogens #Saccharomyces cerevisiae and #Candida albicans > could be related to cognitive performance or the onset of psychotic symptoms
  • [1.8
    - Anti-NRXN1α autoantibodies isolated from patients with schizophrenia inhibited the molecular interaction between NRXN1α and Neuroligin 1 (NLGN1) and between NRXN1α and Neuroligin 2 (NLGN2). - Administration of anti-NRXN1α autoantibodies from patients with schizophrenia into the cerebrospinal fluid of mice reduced the number of spines/synapses in the frontal cortex and induced schizophrenia-related behaviors such as reduced cognition, impaired pre-pulse inhibition, and reduced social novelty preference.
  • [1.9] [#Atopic Dermatitis
    - participants with AD were more likely to have schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. - AD was significantly associated with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder even after adjusting for demographics and comorbidities.
  • [#Cognitive impairment] [#Glutamate, #Glutamine] - Disruption within the glutamatergic pathway can lead to cognitive deficits, schizophrenia and frontotemporal #Dementia
  • [1.11] [#Depression, #Major depressive disorder] [#Candida albicans
  • [1.12
    - brain inflammation, as seen in schizophrenia, can be treated with alpha-7 nAChR (α-7nAChR) agonists or by stimulating the vagus nerve
  • - animal models of schizophrenia had reduced systemic #Dopamine and lower enteric #GABA
  • [1.13
  • [1.14] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - alterations in the #Glutamate-#Glutamine-#GABA cycle and increased SCFAs have been observed in patients with schizophrenia.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - genera #Lactobacillus and #Megasphaera are increased in schizophrenia (SZ), as well as alterations in the #Glutamate-#Glutamine-#GABA cycle, serum levels of #Tryptophan, #kynurenic acid (KYNA), and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs).
  • - altered microbiota in psychosis induces lower serum #Tryptophan, higher serum #kynurenic acid (KYNA) levels, and changes in gray matter volume in non-medicated psychotic patients
  • [1.15] [#Depression] [#Sugar
    - Dietary sugars, like #Fructose and #Glucose, are associated with psychosis-related higher brain dysfunction

References Notes

  • [1.25

Common References

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