Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Candida ⇒ Candida albicans {10001407}

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Candida albicans


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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Candida albicans is the major inducer of antifungal immunoglobulin G (IgG) - Fungal colonization of the gut induces germinal center (GC)-dependent B cell expansion in extraintestinal lymphoid tissues and generates systemic antibodies that confer protection against disseminated C. albicans or C. auris infection.
  • [1.2] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - There is mycobiome alterations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients experiencing a flare compared with a healthy or IBD patients in remission. - These alterations included an increased fungi/bacteria diversity ratio and an increased abundance of Candida albicans, suggestive of fungal overgrowth during inflammation
  • [1.3] [#Crohn’s disease] [#IG A
    - a portion of the microbiota-driven sIgA response is induced by and directed towards intestinal fungi. Analysis of the human gut mycobiota bound by sIgA revealed a preference for hyphae, a fungal morphotype associated with virulence. Candida albicans was a potent inducer of IgA class-switch recombination among plasma cells, via an interaction dependent on intestinal phagocytes and hyphal programming. Characterization of sIgA affinity and polyreactivity showed that hyphae-associated virulence factors were bound by these antibodies and that sIgA influenced C. albicans morphotypes in the murine gut.
  • [1.4] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Chlamydia pneumoniae
    - Among different types of microbes, #Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), #Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Chlamydia pneumonia, #Spirochetes and Candida albicans are frequently detected in the brain of AD patients. - #Amyloid-beta protein has demonstrated to exhibit antimicrobial properties upon encountering these pathogens.
  • [1.5] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease > rich genetic diversity of opportunistic Candida albicans strains. - Among these human-gut-derived isolates, strains with high immune-cell-damaging capacity (HD strains) reflect the disease features of individual patients with #Ulcerative Colitis and aggravated intestinal inflammation in vivo through IL-1β-dependent mechanisms. - Niche-specific inflammatory immunity and interleukin-17A-producing T helper cell (TH17 cell) antifungal responses by HD strains in the gut were dependent on the C. albicans-secreted peptide toxin #Candidalysin during the transition from a benign commensal to a pathobiont state.
  • [1.6] [#Crohn’s disease] [#Candida glabrata, #Candida tropicalis
    - #Candida. A common, although not universal, finding has been an increase, statistically significant or trending, in the relative amount of #Candida in the fecal mycobiome of patients with CD from diverse geographic locations. - The named species is usually C. albicans, but C. tropicalis and C. glabrata have also been reported.
  • [#Ulcerative Colitis] [#Anti–Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies] - anti–#Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) have been associated with CD. - ASCA detect S. cerevisiae #Mannan, a cell wall carbohydrate that is common to most fungi. Thus, the specificity of ASCA for Saccharomyces is not clear, since other common fungi, including Candida albicans, have abundant #Mannan in their cell walls. - Increases in both ASCA IgG and IgA are commonly observed in patients diagnosed with CD. - The ASCA IgA and IgG positive rate is over 50% in patients with CD and less than 5% in patients with non-IBD colitis or healthy controls. - In pediatric patients with CD, ASCA positivity has been associated with older children (>10 years), small bowel disease, and long-term risk of surgery. - In adults, ASCA has been linked to increases in disease severity, location, and age, with ASCA-positive patients more likely to have severe and complicated disease. - A recent study of pediatric patients in Australia noted that ASCA positivity correlated with increases and decreases in several specific bacteria, further suggesting that ASCA may be associated with specific subtypes of disease and that this may be reflected in the microbiome as well. - ASCA IgA was observed to be the most predictive marker of a future diagnosis of CD and was predictive as much as 5 years before diagnosis,
  • [1.7
    - Candida albicans, a common agent of candidiasis, induces #Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) secretion in vitro and angiogenesis in brains and kidneys during systemic infections. - Candida albicans hyphae (and not yeast cells) increase the FGF-2 response in human endothelial cells. #Candidalysin, a toxin secreted exclusively by C. albicans in the hyphal state, is required to induce this response. - in the systemic Candida albicans infection model, mice treated with FGF-2 exhibit significantly higher mortality rates when compared to untreated mice not given the angiogenic growth factor.
  • [1.8
    - Candida colonization is regularly correlated with #Oral leukoplakia (OL), which is called as “Candida leukoplakia,” with infiltration of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. - C. albicans is the most common Candida species associated with leukoplakia, and its genotype A strains are more frequently associated with OL transformation
  • [1.9] [#Beta-glucan
    - #Candidalysin, a peptide toxin secreted by the commensal gut fungus Candida albicans, was found to enhance alcohol-associated liver disease independent of the β-glucan receptor CLEC7A, and is also associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with #Alcoholic Hepatitis.
  • [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Beta-glucan] - Enrichment of Candida albicans in samples from individuals with T2D. - Repopulation with C. albicans in HFD mice accelerated insulin resistance and related disorders. - β-glucan from C. albicans mirrored the deteriorating effect of C. albicans through the dectin-1 dependent pathway.

References Notes

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Common References