Candida ⇒ Candida albicans {10001407}

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Candida albicans


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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Candida albicans is the major inducer of antifungal immunoglobulin G (IgG) - Fungal colonization of the gut induces germinal center (GC)-dependent B cell expansion in extraintestinal lymphoid tissues and generates systemic antibodies that confer protection against disseminated C. albicans or C. auris infection.
  • [1.2] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - There is mycobiome alterations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients experiencing a flare compared with a healthy or IBD patients in remission. - These alterations included an increased fungi/bacteria diversity ratio and an increased abundance of Candida albicans, suggestive of fungal overgrowth during inflammation
  • [1.3] [#Crohn’s disease] [#IG A
    - a portion of the microbiota-driven sIgA response is induced by and directed towards intestinal fungi. Analysis of the human gut mycobiota bound by sIgA revealed a preference for hyphae, a fungal morphotype associated with virulence. Candida albicans was a potent inducer of IgA class-switch recombination among plasma cells, via an interaction dependent on intestinal phagocytes and hyphal programming. Characterization of sIgA affinity and polyreactivity showed that hyphae-associated virulence factors were bound by these antibodies and that sIgA influenced C. albicans morphotypes in the murine gut.
  • [1.4] [#Alzheimer’s disease] [#Chlamydia pneumoniae
    - Among different types of microbes, #Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), #Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Chlamydia pneumonia, #Spirochetes and Candida albicans are frequently detected in the brain of AD patients. - #Amyloid-beta protein has demonstrated to exhibit antimicrobial properties upon encountering these pathogens.
  • [1.5] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease > rich genetic diversity of opportunistic Candida albicans strains. - Among these human-gut-derived isolates, strains with high immune-cell-damaging capacity (HD strains) reflect the disease features of individual patients with #Ulcerative Colitis and aggravated intestinal inflammation in vivo through IL-1β-dependent mechanisms. - Niche-specific inflammatory immunity and interleukin-17A-producing T helper cell (TH17 cell) antifungal responses by HD strains in the gut were dependent on the C. albicans-secreted peptide toxin #Candidalysin during the transition from a benign commensal to a pathobiont state.
  • [1.6] [#Crohn’s disease] [#Candida glabrata, #Candida tropicalis
    - #Candida. A common, although not universal, finding has been an increase, statistically significant or trending, in the relative amount of #Candida in the fecal mycobiome of patients with CD from diverse geographic locations. - The named species is usually C. albicans, but C. tropicalis and C. glabrata have also been reported.
  • [#Ulcerative Colitis] [#Anti–Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies] - anti–#Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) have been associated with CD. - ASCA detect S. cerevisiae #Mannan, a cell wall carbohydrate that is common to most fungi. Thus, the specificity of ASCA for Saccharomyces is not clear, since other common fungi, including Candida albicans, have abundant #Mannan in their cell walls. - Increases in both ASCA IgG and IgA are commonly observed in patients diagnosed with CD. - The ASCA IgA and IgG positive rate is over 50% in patients with CD and less than 5% in patients with non-IBD colitis or healthy controls. - In pediatric patients with CD, ASCA positivity has been associated with older children (>10 years), small bowel disease, and long-term risk of surgery. - In adults, ASCA has been linked to increases in disease severity, location, and age, with ASCA-positive patients more likely to have severe and complicated disease. - A recent study of pediatric patients in Australia noted that ASCA positivity correlated with increases and decreases in several specific bacteria, further suggesting that ASCA may be associated with specific subtypes of disease and that this may be reflected in the microbiome as well. - ASCA IgA was observed to be the most predictive marker of a future diagnosis of CD and was predictive as much as 5 years before diagnosis,
  • [1.7
    - Candida albicans, a common agent of candidiasis, induces #Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF-2) secretion in vitro and angiogenesis in brains and kidneys during systemic infections. - Candida albicans hyphae (and not yeast cells) increase the FGF-2 response in human endothelial cells. #Candidalysin, a toxin secreted exclusively by C. albicans in the hyphal state, is required to induce this response. - in the systemic Candida albicans infection model, mice treated with FGF-2 exhibit significantly higher mortality rates when compared to untreated mice not given the angiogenic growth factor.
  • [1.8
    - Candida colonization is regularly correlated with #Oral leukoplakia (OL), which is called as “Candida leukoplakia,” with infiltration of hyphae in the superficial epithelium. - C. albicans is the most common Candida species associated with leukoplakia, and its genotype A strains are more frequently associated with OL transformation
  • [1.9] [#Beta-glucan
    - #Candidalysin, a peptide toxin secreted by the commensal gut fungus Candida albicans, was found to enhance alcohol-associated liver disease independent of the β-glucan receptor CLEC7A, and is also associated with worse clinical outcomes in patients with #Alcoholic Hepatitis.
  • [#Diabetes Type 2] [#Beta-glucan] - Enrichment of Candida albicans in samples from individuals with T2D. - Repopulation with C. albicans in HFD mice accelerated insulin resistance and related disorders. - β-glucan from C. albicans mirrored the deteriorating effect of C. albicans through the dectin-1 dependent pathway.
  • [#Bipolar disorder, #Schizophrenia] - BD and SZ are characterized by higher serum antibody levels to fungal pathogens #Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans > could be related to cognitive performance or the onset of psychotic symptoms
  • [1.11] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - Depletion of #Bacteria by antibiotics is required to achieve high levels of C. albicans intestinal colonization in laboratory mice
  • - strains of #Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and #Lactobacilli, have been shown to reduce C. albicans colonization of the gut
  • - C. albicans colonization supports colonization with #Streptococcus oralis in mice and leads to expansion of endogenous #Enterococcus faecalis
  • - #Lactobacilli can produce bacteriocins and hydrogen peroxide, which all contribute to a direct antifungal effect of #Lactobacilli. - by competing for adhesion sites, #Lactobacilli reduce adhesion of C. albicans to epithelial surfaces.
  • - Mucus, specifically mucin #O-Glycans, suppresses adhesion and filamentation by c. albicans
  • [#Vaginal microbiota, #Vulvovaginal candidiasis] - #Lactobacillus spp. produces lactic and other organic acids that contribute to the low pH within the vaginal cavity. - Low pH (< 4.5) inhibits C. albicans yeast-to-hypha transition.
  • [1.12
    - Intestinal C. Albicans probably as commensals constantly supplemented from the oral cavity, frequent teeth cleaning dramatically reduces fecal C. Albicans abundance
  • - the host’s high iron level enhances C. Albicans infection severity and its dissemination from the oral to the gut
  • [#Clostridioides difficile] [#Para-cresol] - In the presence of C. Albicans, the opportunistic bacterium C. difficile can tolerate aerobic conditions, and the p-cresol produced by C. difficile inhibit C. Albian’s hypha formation, biofilm formation, and virulence. - This symbiotic relationship leads to more severe infection of C. difficile in mice models and increases IL-8 production in experimental intestinal epithelial cell-lines
  • [#Tauro-cholic acid] - C. Albicans infection could be promoted by intestinal taurocholic acid (TCA) that weakens mucosal innate and adaptive immune responses
  • [1.13
    - application of #Staphylococcus epidermidis to mouse skin showed enhanced innate protection against Candida albicans by upregulating Th17 immune mediators such as S100A8 and S100A9
  • [1.14] [#Myasthenia gravis
    - in one MG patient, C. albicans was dominantly present.
  • [#Antibiotic Therapy] - an intestinal fungal overgrowth or an oral candidiasis often occur after long-term antibiotic treatment or in #Short Bowel Syndrome, a malabsorptive disorder, as a result of the loss of bowel mass mostly secondary to surgical resection of the small intestine.
  • [1.15] [#Streptococcus mutans
    - The presence of C. albicans would increase the abundance of #Streptococcus (particularly S. mutans), certain #Lactobacillus species, and salivary #Veillonella and #Prevotella, and also increase the cariogenic virulence of biofilms
  • - the presence of C. albicans alters the bacterial microbiota, leading to the presence of strictly anaerobic bacteria when #Oxygen is abundant.
  • [1.16
    - Paneth cells in the gut secrete several #Antimicrobial peptides into the lumen to regulate the microbiota, as well as #Pancreatic polypeptide YY (PYY). - The Paneth cell–derived PYY was full length, unlike the endocrine form, and although it had some antibacterial activity, it was most effective at inhibiting the ubiquitous gut fungus Candida albicans from transforming from the commensal yeast form into the invasive hyphal form ( against virulent Candida albicans hyphae—but not the yeast form).
  • [1.17] [#Depression, #Major depressive disorder, #Schizophrenia
  • [1.18] [#Berberine
    - BBR (32 μg/mL) can inhibit the growth of Candida albicans by inhibiting biofilm formation
  • [1.19] [#Otitis Media] [#IL-1b, #TNF-alfa
    - introducing C. albicans into the guts of mice, a greater degree of ear swelling occurred accompanied by higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, #IL-6 and TNF-α) in the ear
  • [#Skin wound] - topical #Resveratrol treatment exhibited a significant antimicrobial efficacy against #Staphylococcus aureus, #Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans, which are discussed as significant pathogens in the context of non-healing wounds. - Resveratrols’ antimicrobial effects seemed to be even superior than some commercial antimicrobial (Levomecol) and antifungal (Clotrimazole) ointments.
  • [1.21] [#Alzheimer’s disease, #Blood Brain Barrier Integrity] [#Amyloid-beta
    - C. albicans enters the mouse brain from the blood and induces two neuroimmune sensing mechanisms involving secreted #Aspartic proteinases (Saps) and #Candidalysin. - Saps disrupt tight junction proteins of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to permit fungal brain invasion. - Saps also hydrolyze amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid b (Ab)-like peptides that bind to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and promote fungal killing in vitro while #Candidalysin engages the integrin CD11b (Mac-1) on microglia.
  • [1.22
    - elevated levels of Candida albicans immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies marked patients with severe #Covid-19 (sCOVID-19) who had intestinal Candida overgrowth, mycobiota dysbiosis and systemic neutrophilia. - Mice colonized with C. albicans patient isolates experienced increased lung neutrophilia and pulmonary NETosis during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection, which were partially resolved with antifungal treatment or by interleukin-6 receptor blockade. - sCOVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab experienced sustained reductions in C. albicans IgG antibodies titers and GMP transcriptional changes
  • [1.23] [#Gastric carcinoma
    - Candida albicans (C. albicans) can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of GC.
  • [1.24] [#Candida dubliniensis
    - Ca dubliniensis is phylogenetically closely related to Ca albicans and was originally described to cause oral candidiasis in HIV-infected individuals and AIDS patients.
  • [#Crohn’s disease] - CD patients and their first-degree healthy relatives have been shown to be more frequently and heavily colonized by Ca albicans than control individuals, and ASCA levels correlate with Ca albicans colonization in relatives.
  • [#Crohn’s disease] [#Riboflavin, #Thiamin] - Ca albicans is largely overrepresented in inflammatory (B1) vs stricturing (B2) phenotypes, and it is actually the only species showing significant differences. - An increased abundance of Ca albicans in inflammatory CD (B1) is consistent with its proinflammatory effects described in several studies.
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease] - IBD patients present an increased abundance of Ca albicans and Ca dublinensis.
  • [1.25
    - #Indole and its derivatives seem to increase the integrity of the epithelial barrier and function of tight junctions > reduce #Colitis related to #Citrobacter rodentium and Candida albicans infection

References Notes

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