Disease ⇒ Ulcerative Colitis {40000109}

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Ulcerative Colitis


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Gastroenterology, Rheumatology
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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Plant-based diet
    - A positive association between a “high #Sugar and soft drinks” pattern and UC risk - When considering the foods most associated with the pattern, high consumers of #Sugar and soft drinks were at higher UC risk only if they had low vegetables intakes.
  • [1.2
    - Functional analysis revealed increased fecal proteolytic and elastase activity before UC onset. - Elastase activity inversely correlated with the relative abundance of #Adlercreutzia.
  • - Elastase activity directly correlated with known proteolytic taxa, such as ##Bacteroides vulgatus and high elastase activity was confirmed in Bacteroides isolates from fecal samples. - Mice colonized with or born from pre-UC colonized dams developed higher fecal proteolytic activity and an inflammatory immune tone compared with HC colonized mice.
  • [1.3
    - The safety and tolerability of SER-287 were similar to placebo. - SER-287 after vancomycin was significantly more effective than placebo for induction of remission in patients with active mild to moderate UC.
  • [1.4
    - Significantly higher abundances of Bifidobacterium in UC.
  • [1.5] [#Crohn’s disease] [#High fibre diet
    - Long-term intake of fibers from fruit > protective against the development of CD, but not of UC
  • [#Meat-based diet] - Red meat is metabolized by intestinal bacteria with production of branched-chain amino acids and toxic elements like hydrogen sulfide, nitrous compounds, amines, and ammonia that induce DNA damage of eucaryotic cells and promote colon inflammation in murine models. - Large epidemiological data confirmed the association between high consumption of red meat and risk of IBD development, in particular UC , where it was found to affect also the relapse risk.
  • [1.6
    - Intestinal microbiota in UC is associated with abundant small atypical #N-glycans. - Higher level of microbiota-associated atypical #N-glycans in UC than controls. - Atypical #N-glycans act as promising biomarker candidates for pediatric UC.
  • [1.7] [#P-glycoprotein
    - in patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC), P-gp expression coupled to the reduction of epithelial-derived anti-inflammatory endocannabinoids and luminal content (e.g., microbes or their metabolites) with a reduced capability to induce P-gp expression.
  • [1.8
  • [1.9] [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Western-style diet
    - Two commonly used emulsifiers, #Carboxymethylcellulose and #Polysorbate-80 > induce inflammation and metabolic changes, mediated by gut microbes.
  • [1.11] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease > rich genetic diversity of opportunistic #Candida albicans strains. - Among these human-gut-derived isolates, strains with high immune-cell-damaging capacity (HD strains) reflect the disease features of individual patients with ulcerative colitis and aggravated intestinal inflammation in vivo through IL-1β-dependent mechanisms. - Niche-specific inflammatory immunity and interleukin-17A-producing T helper cell (TH17 cell) antifungal responses by HD strains in the gut were dependent on the C. albicans-secreted peptide toxin #Candidalysin during the transition from a benign commensal to a pathobiont state.
  • [1.12] [#Anti–Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies
    - anti–#Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) have been associated with CD. - ASCA detect S. cerevisiae #Mannan, a cell wall carbohydrate that is common to most fungi. Thus, the specificity of ASCA for Saccharomyces is not clear, since other common fungi, including #Candida albicans, have abundant #Mannan in their cell walls. - Increases in both ASCA IgG and IgA are commonly observed in patients diagnosed with CD. - The ASCA IgA and IgG positive rate is over 50% in patients with CD and less than 5% in patients with non-IBD colitis or healthy controls. - In pediatric patients with CD, ASCA positivity has been associated with older children (>10 years), small bowel disease, and long-term risk of surgery. - In adults, ASCA has been linked to increases in disease severity, location, and age, with ASCA-positive patients more likely to have severe and complicated disease. - A recent study of pediatric patients in Australia noted that ASCA positivity correlated with increases and decreases in several specific bacteria, further suggesting that ASCA may be associated with specific subtypes of disease and that this may be reflected in the microbiome as well. - ASCA IgA was observed to be the most predictive marker of a future diagnosis of CD and was predictive as much as 5 years before diagnosis,
  • [1.13
    - microorganisms that invade the terminal ileum and colon of UC-affected individuals as the pro-inflammatory bacteria Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter, which are both members of the Enterobacteriaceae family
  • - during active UC, anti-inflammatory #Lactobacillus and #Pediococcus acidilactici were absent in fecal samples
  • [1.14] [#Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
    - In ulcerative colitis (UC), patients’ mycobiota revealed that those with high levels of #Candida were more likely to benefit from FMT treatment. - Amelioration of disease was associated with a decrease in #Candida following FMT.
  • [1.15] [#Primary bile acids, #Secondary bile acids
    - colonic CD displayed a disease-severity-related association with #Bacteroides vulgatus. - Compared to colonic CD, ileal CD profiles displayed increased primary and secondary bile acid levels and concomitant shifts in taxa with noted sensitivities such as #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii or affinities for bile acid-rich environments, including #Gammaproteobacteria and #Blautia sp.
  • [1.16] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Bile Acids, #Primary bile acids, #Secondary bile acids
    - Reduced BA deconjugation is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) including ulcerative colitis (UC) and #Crohn’s disease (CD), as well as #Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
  • [1.17] [#Acute anterior uveitis, #Ankylosing spondylitis, #Crohn’s disease, #HLA-B27-associated disease, #Psoriasis, #Psoriatic Arthritis
    - HLA-B27 transgenic rats that develop a spontaneous spondyloarthropathy-like illness do not develop disease when raised in a germ-free environment, but mono-association with #Phocaeicola vulgatus is sufficient to induce disease.
  • [1.18
  • [1.19] [#Colorectal cancer, #Crohn’s disease] [#Bacteriophage, #Western-style diet
    - the abundance of a class of crAss-like phages, a group of related viruses that includes some of the most abundant viruses of the human gut, were higher in populations with non-westernized dietary habits - several types of crAss-like phages were present at decreased levels in people with #Rheumatoid Arthritis, #Systemic lupus erythematosus, ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, and at increased levels in people with colon cancer.
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease] - In terms of IBD, #Prevotella is a potential alternative biomarker for UC, tightly matched with feces and other oral areas
  • [1.21] [#Lactobacillus mucosae
    - In ulcerative #Colitis, excessive epithelial repair results in lower PPAR-γ synthesis, which reduces beta-oxidation and increases oxygenation of colonocytes. Inflamed mucosae in #Colitis patients are increased in #Proteobacteria, a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria, but decreased in gram-positive #Firmicutes. Treatment with PPAR-γ agonist, however, can improve the microbial balance
  • [1.22
    - #Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), to which group #Desulfovibrio bacteria belongs, have been shown to induce apoptosis of human colonic epithelial cells when the SRB enrichments originated from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis
  • [1.23] [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease
    - The incidence of IBD was significantly higher in patients with #Migraine, CD and UC than in those without #Migraine. - After 5 years of follow-up, those with #Migraine showed curves implying cumulative incidences of IBD with a steep increase, especially for CD.
  • [1.24] [#Desulfovibrio desulfuricans
    - Barrier dysfunction in the intestine is a pathogenic factor in D. desulfuricans-induced UC, and endothelial dysfunction promotes #Atherosclerosis.
  • [1.25] [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Escherichia coli
    - Most UC, and to a lesser extent CD patients develop peri-nuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA). - These antibodies cross-react with the E. coli membrane porin C (#OmpC) protein, suggesting a possible role for B cell autoreactivity and gut microbial antigenic cross-reactivity in the pathogenesis of IBD
  • [#Crohn’s disease] - CD, albeit not UC, is associated with increased serum levels of anti-#Flagellin IgG and IgA antibodies
  • [1.26] [#Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Proton pump inhibitors
    - regular use of PPIs consistently showed a significantly positive association with IBD, #Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis risk - Direct comparison with H2 receptor antagonist, a less potent acid suppressor, showed that PPI use was also associated with higher IBD risk
  • [1.27] [#Niacin
    - Vitamin B3 plays a vital role in reducing inflammation and causes relapsing inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis when deficient. - It controls inflammation by inhibiting vascular permeability in intestinal tissues by activating the PGD2/DP1 signal in endothelial cells. - vitamin B3 engages in various metabolic reactions that alter the cellular redox state and rapamycin signalling pathway, thus suppressing the colon’s inflammations
  • [#Niacin] [#Hydrocolon Therapy] - retention enema containing vitamin B3 effectively promoted mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis, most likely due to the downregulation of colonic inflammatory cytokines and suppression of proinflammatory gene expression
  • [1.28] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - UC > depletion of SCFA-producing #Bacteria such as #Prevotella, #Roseburia, #Lachnospiraceae, and #Ruminococcaceae.
  • [#Genome] - In addition to #Bifidobacterium and #Lactobacillus, our study found a significant enrichment of #Streptococcus, a #Lactic acid-producing bacteria, in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). - This is in contrast to the majority of earlier studies from west. - This increase in #Streptococcus abundance has also been observed in UC patients from different populations.
  • - increased abundance of #Nitrate-reducing bacteria in UC patients. - persistent inflammation in UC patients accumulates nonfermentable #Nitrate. - #Bifidobacterium and #Lactobacillus can utilize nonfermentable forms of #Nitrate.
  • [#Prevotella] - Prevotella_7 and #Blautia taxa abundance, as well as two metabolic pathways, might serve as a discriminating signature between north Indian UC patients with active disease and those in remission.
  • - contrary to earlier reports, no significant loss of #Faecalibacterium genera was observed in UC patients, there was even a slight increase in the abundance of #Faecalibacterium in UC patients.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - A significant loss of SCFA-producing microbes and the concurrent increase in #Nitrate-reducing bacteria in UC patients favor a shift towards a proinflammatory microbiome > enrichment of #Lactic acid-producing bacteria is a consequence of increased inflammation.
  • [1.29
    - #Butyrate enema showed inhibition of NF-κB activation in the lamina propria macrophages of UC patients, and it also reduced disease activity
  • [#Colorectal cancer] [#Lactobacillus plantarum] - L. plantarum reduced chronic mucosal inflammation and ulcerative colitis symptoms. Chronic intestinal #inflammation is important because chronic intestinal inflammation can lead to the development of CRC
  • [1.31] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - Among #Adult participants, the scientists found that those with #Atopic Dermatitis had a 34% increased risk of IBD, a 36% higher risk of #Crohn’s disease, and a 32% increased risk of ulcerative colitis.
  • [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease] - #Children with #Atopic Dermatitis had a 44% increased risk of IBD and a 74% increased risk of CD, which increased with worsening AD; however, they did not have increased risk of UC except for those with severe AD.
  • [1.32] [#Diabetes Type 1, #Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, #Psoriasis, #Sjögren syndrome
    Patients with psoriatic disease had a significantly higher risk of #Crohn’s disease , ulcerative colitis, #Systemic lupus erythematosus, #Rheumatoid Arthritis, #Ankylosing spondylitis , #Alopecia areata, and type 1 diabetes. - the risk of #Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s disease, Sjögren’s syndrome, and #Systemic sclerosis was not significantly different between the groups.
  • [1.33] [#β-fructan] [#High fibre diet
    - fibre based intervention was shown to have paradoxical effects on inflammation in some patients with ulcerative colitis whose gut microbiomes lacked the taxa that facilitate fermentation of fibre. - a widely used fibre based prebiotic, β-fructan, led to accumulation of unfermented β-fructan in the gut of people without the fibre degrading bacteria, resulting in increased inflammation.
  • [1.34] [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease, #Oral cancer
    - CD and UC, as subtypes of IBD, were also found to be potential risk factors for oral cavity cancer
  • [1.35] [#Crohn’s disease
    - in CD, progressive reductions in #Iron, hemoglobin, and albumin and concomitant increases in CRP, monocytes, and platelets were observed years before a diagnosis was made. - Similar results were observed in UC but for a much shorter time period prior to diagnosis.
  • [1.36
    - decreasing abundance of #Penicillium from UC proctitis to extensive #Colitis, in which it virtually disappears > at species level (P. glandicola, P. roqueforti, P. citrinum, P. clavigerum, P. chrysogenum, and P. oxalicum) > an inverse correlation of #Penicillium and disease extension is described in UC.
  • [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Penicillium brevicompactum] - P brevicompactum was also very significantly depleted in UC and CD. - P brevicompactum is a filamentous fungus widely distributed throughout the natural world and is also used in the production of Mycophenolic acid, a compound that has anti-inflammatory effects in IBD (mycophenolate mofetil).
  • [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Saccharomyces pastorianus] - S pastorianus in IBD, since it was significantly depleted both in UC and CD patients in activity.
  • [#Crohn’s disease] - the mycobiome at the genus level was different between UC and CD
  • [#Crohn’s disease] [#Aspergillus aculeatus , #Aspergillus rubrobrunneus ] - A aculeatus was less abundant in UC, while A rubrobrunneus (A ruber) was significantly depleted in both UC and CD.
  • [#Crohn’s disease] - Both UC and CD patients were markedly depleted in #Aspergillus
  • [#Crohn’s disease] [#Debaryomyces hansenii] - patients with isolated ileal CD showed a marked increased abundance in D hansenii, a species previously related to CD pathogenesis. - D hansenii is enriched in inflamed ileal biopsies of patients with CD and impairs mucosal healing. - an enrichment in Debaromyces in patients with UC.
  • - UC > high abundance of #Candida in nonresponders to infliximab, highlighting its potential proinflammatory effect.
  • - High #Candida abundance was associated with a clinical response in UC patients treated with #Fecal Microbiota Transplantation with a decrease in #Candida in those patients who responded.
  • [1.37] [#Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Ruminococcus gnavus
    - In IBD patients, the most distinctive feature between CD and UC was a significantly higher abundance of R. gnavus in CD.
  • [#Crohn’s disease] [#Ruminococcus gnavus] - #Pouchitis, a common complication following restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis for UC, is associated with increased levels of R. gnavus compared to UC and CD
  • [#Ruminococcus gnavus] - in UC patients who underwent #Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), the abundance of R. gnavus was found to be higher in donors of failed FMT and decreased after FMT.
  • [1.38] [#Colorectal cancer
    - inflammation induced by gut #Bacteria impacts the metabolism of all-trans #Retinoic acid (AtRA), resulting in diminished levels of AtRA, this reduction in AtRA levels has been implicated in the advancement of ulcerative colitis (UC) and its associated CRC
  • [1.39] [#Constitutive androstane receptor , #Diabetes Type 2, #Metabolic associated fatty liver disease] [#3,3′-Diindolylmethane
    - CAR plays a critical role in regulating the breakdown, uptake and removal of foreign substances in the liver, including drugs. - CAR plays a role in diabetes, fatty liver disease and small intestine ulcerative colitis - The diindoles, diindolylmethane (DIM) and #Diindolylethane (DIE) selectively up-regulate bona fide CAR target genes in primary human hepatocytes and mouse liver without causing significant side effects.

References Notes

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Common References

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