Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Disease ⇒ Severe Mental Disorders ⇒ Depression {40000114}

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Other Terms:
Depressive Disorders, major depressive disorder, MDD


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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - One previously uncultured bacterium, provisionally named Evtepia gabavorous KLE1738, which required the presence of Bacteroides fragilis KLE1758 for growth. Using bio-assay driven purification of B. fragilis supernatant, Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system, was identified as the growth factor of E. gabavorous. In vitro feeding experiments and genomic analysis of E. gabavorous suggests an unusual metabolism focused on consuming GABA. - Using growth of E. gabavorous as an indicator. Reduced levels of GABA are associated with depression, and we found fewer GABA producers in a human cohort of depressed, bipolar, and/or schizophrenic individuals. By modulating the level of GABA, microbial producers and consumers of this neurotransmitter may be influencing host.
  • [1.2
    - GABA is the growth factor produced by Bacteroides fragilis. - An inverse relationship between the relative abundance of fecal Bacteroidesand functional connectivity in a part of the brain associated with elevated activity during depression. This means that low abundance of Bacteroides was associated with high activity in that part of the brain, and vice versa.
  • [1.3
    - There is a decrease in the endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling due to lower peripheral levels of fatty acid precursors of eCB ligands. - The adverse effects of UCMS-transferred microbiota is alleviated by selectively enhancing the central eCB or by complementation with a strain of the Lactobacilli genus.
  • [1.4
    - Chemogenetic activation of striatal microglia induces an aversive affective state - Chemogenetic inhibition of microglia blocks inflammation-induced aversion - Microglial interleukin 6 signaling and prostaglandin synthesis regulate affective state - Prostaglandin E2 from activated microglia reduces the excitability of striatal neurons
  • [1.5
    - It is found that the transfer of the microbiota from models with depression to that of other animals deprived of their microbiota also determined the transfer of the behavioral and physiological characteristics of the depression
  • - Butyrate reduced the depressive behavior, exerting an effect on the CNS in rats
  • [#Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)] - The administration of a probiotic cocktail, composed of #Lactobacillus rhamnosus and #Lactobacillus helveticus, reduced the symptoms of depression and anxiety
  • [1.6
    - #Combination of probiotics and polyphenol-rich prebiotics, a synbiotic >attenuates the chronic-stress induced inflammatory responses in the ileum and the prefrontal cortex promoting > resilience to the consequent depressive- and #Anxiety-like behaviors in male mice. - This effect may be attributed to specific synbiotic-produced metabolites including #4-hydroxyphenylpropionic, #4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and #Caffeic acid > promoted anti-inflammatory activity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR).
  • [1.7] [#Lactobacillaceae, #Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri] [#Probiotic (Bifidobacter and Lactobacilus)
    - Lactobacillus reuteri and #Bifidobacterium adolescentis Probitica > reduction in depressive symptoms at four and eight weeks of treatment, and #Anxiety symptoms at four weeks. > improvement in #Sleep quality. - Lactobacillus reuteri and #Bifidobacterium adolescentis Probitica > decrease in serum interleukin-6 levels. - Lactobacillus reuteri and #Bifidobacterium adolescentis Probitica > increased #Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillacea, whereas it decreased #Enterobacteriaceae in the gut microbiota composition.
  • [1.8
    - #Morganella, was significantly increased in a microbial survey of the 181 people in the study who later developed depression.
  • [1.9
    - depression > glutamate and acetylcholine neurotransmitter levels are higher, while GABA neurotransmitter levels are lower. - regulation of the Kyn/tryptophan pathway may affect the receptors of NMDA in the CNS, might be involved in the progression of depression
  • [#Inflamatory bowel disease] - patients with depression were two times as likely to develop IBD. - 30% of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients develop depression.
  • [1.11] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - reduced levels of SCFAs were observed in patients with #Alzheimer’s disease, and they also promoted depression-like behaviors and impairments of short-term memory in mice
  • - #kynurenine and #Indole derivatives might be associated with neurogenic depression
  • [1.12
    - Oral gavages of #Klebsiella oxytoca, #Escherichia coli, and #Cronobacter sakazakii belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, singly or together, caused dose-dependently #Colitis and depression-like behaviors in germ-free and specific-pathogen-free mice.
  • - #Enterococcus faecium and #Pediococcus acidolactici did not significantly cause colitis and depression-like behaviors, they significantly deteriorated Klebsiella oxytoca- or Escherichia coli-induced colitis, neuroinflammation, and anxiety/depression-like behaviors and increased blood LPS, corticosterone, and IL-6 levels.
  • [1.13] [#Lactobacillus plantarum
    - High #Proline consumption was the dietary factor with the strongest impact on depression. - #Proline supplementation in mice exacerbated depression along with microbial translocation. - RNAi-mediated knockdown of #Proline and GABA transporters in Drosophila and mono-association with L. plantarum, a high GABA producer, conferred protection against depression-like states.
  • [1.14] [#Vitamin B12
    - The neurologic complications of B12 deficiency occur at a later stage of depletion and was associated with severe symptoms of depression, suicidal behaviors, reduced cognition, mental #Fatigue, bad or depressed moods, mania, psychosis, and intense agitation
  • [1.15] [#Dark chocolate
    - #Blautia obeum levels were significantly elevated and #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii levels were reduced in DC85 compared to CON (P<.05). - Mood states were measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) - the observed changes in negative affect scores were negatively correlated with diversity and relative abundance of #Blautia obeum.
  • [1.16] [#Suicidal ideation
    - rs10437629, previously associated with attempted suicide, was correlated here with SI and the absence of #Alloprevotella rava, a producer of an organic acid known to promote brain energy homeostasis.
  • [1.17
    - Serum IL-6 (age 9) strongly associated with total number of depressive episodes. - CRP DNAm scores weakly associated with total number of psychotic experiences.
  • [1.18] [#5-Hydroxytryptophan
    - Oral administration of 5-HTP significantly restored gut microbiota dysbiosis in mice with depression-like behaviors
  • [1.19] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - 65% of individuals with IBD exhibited elevated psychological distress and 21% exhibited symptoms of depression.
  • - Depressed individuals receiving the #Probiotic had ↓ circulating CRP. - #Probiotic treatment, but not prebiotic treatment, decreased depressive symptoms. #Probiotic treatment resulted in ↓ circulating #kynurenine/#Tryptophan ratio, when adjusting for #Isoleucine
  • - Fecal levels of #Isovaleric acid positively correlated with an average of morning and mid-day salivary cortisol measurements. - Depression symptoms positively correlated with fecal levels of #Isovaleric acid
  • [#Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri] [#Condition of chronic stress] - chronic stress was connected with increased depression-like behavior (as measured by the forced swim test), reduced Lactobacillus spp. in the fecal microbiome, as well as increased circulating levels of #kynurenine, a direct metabolite of #Tryptophan via the enzyme IDO1. - supplemented the diet of the mice with L. reuteri ATCC 23272 for an additional 4 weeks, which was sufficient to reverse behavior and #kynurenine concentrations. - The reversal of depression-like behaviors was diminished if #kynurenine levels were artificially elevated during probiotic supplementation, suggesting a link between #kynurenine signaling and depression-like behavior.
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - Depressed individuals had ↑ circulating IgM and ↑ IgA antibodies against LPS, indicating increased bacterial translocation. - Individuals with depressive and/or anxiety disorders had altered plasma levels of: ↑ LPS, ↑ #Zonulin, and ↑ fatty acid-binding protein 2, as well as an overrepresentation of LPS biosynthesis genes in the fecal microbiome. - Couples with hostile marital interactions had altered circulating: ↑ LPS binding protein (LBP), and ↑ CRP, and individuals with a history of mood disorders had altered circulating levels: ↑ ratio LBP/sCD14 and ↑ CRP
  • [#Autism] - The depletion of #Bifidobacterium species has been reported widely in ASD. - #Bifidobacteria are SCFA producers, and “psychobiotics” , and they modulate the gut–brain signals via γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and #Glutamate metabolism. - #Bifidobacterium have been reported to improve behavior and prevent depression-like behaviors in mice.
  • [1.21] [#Bipolar disorder
    - Depressive stages in BD patients manifested in form of melancholia are associated with higher IgA responses to #Citrobacter koseri than in healthy or non-melancholic depressed individuals. - - in BD patients with a depressive episode > increased levels of #Coriobacteria and #Actinobacteria together with decreased #Ruminococcaceae and #Faecalibacterium.
  • [1.22
    - #Subdoligranulum and #Coprococcus were consistently found to be depleted in individuals with generalized #Anxiety disorder and depression
  • - #Eggerthella has been consistently found to be increased in depression and #Anxiety cases.
  • - #Ruminococcusgauvreauii belongs to the family Ruminococcaceae and at species level was found to be increased in atherosclerotic conditions. - depression is known to be causally associated with #Atherosclerosis.
  • [#Bipolar disorder] - #Ruminococcaceae at genus and family levels have been found to be depleted in cases of both uni- and bipolar depression
  • - #Eubacterium ventriosum > significantly depleted after #Traumatic Brain Injury in mice. - Major depression is a frequent complication of #Traumatic Brain Injury. - Depletion of #Eubacterium ventriosum > increase in depressive symptoms
  • - #Butyrate can affect the gut-brain axis by enhancing the cholinergic neurons via epigenetic mechanisms and can cross the blood brain barrier and activate the vagus nerve and hypothalamus. - Sodium #Butyrate has shown anti-depressant effects in animal models of depression and mani
  • [#Christensenellaceae, #Coprococcus eutactus, #Lachnospiraceae] - RuminococcaceaeUCG005 as the most important genus in predicting depressive symptoms. - #Sellimonas, #Eggerthella, #Lachnoclostridium and #Hungatella were more abundant in individuals with higher depressive symptoms. - 12 genera and 1 microbial family associated with depressive symptoms > genera #Sellimonas, #Eggerthella, #Ruminococcaceae (UCG002, UCG003, UCG005), #Lachnoclostridium, #Hungatella, Coprococcus, LachnospiraceaeUCG001, Ruminococcusgauvreauiigroup, #Eubacterium ventriosum, #Subdoligranulum and family #Ruminococcaceae.
  • [#Omega 3 Supplementation] - #Omega 3 fatty acids, more specifically #Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) supplementation are beneficial for depression.
  • - Low levels of #GABA are linked to depression and mood disorders. - gut microbiota can alter #GABA activity in the brain through the vagus nerve.
  • - #Glutamate levels in plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue have been associated with mood and psychotic disorders and suicide.
  • [#Lachnospiraceae] - LachnospiraceaeUCG001, at species level, was found to be associated with anhedonia in mice
  • [1.23] [#Bipolar disorder
    - patients with BD may have an altered histaminergic system, with upregulated #Histamine levels in manic phases and downregulated in depression
  • [#Bipolar disorder] - The increment of serum #Zonulin levels may be related to higher susceptibility for depression induced by stimuli. - #Zonulin and claudin-5 have seen increased in patients with BD.
  • - self-reported depressive symptoms were positively associated with fecal #Acetate concentrations and negatively associated with #Butyrate and #Propionate levels.
  • - #Dopamine, which is higher during mania, increases ROS, and it seems that, during mania and depression, there is a compensatory increase in antioxidant marker levels
  • [1.24] [#Bifidobacterium longum, #Lactobacillus helveticus
    - consum of a mix of psychobiotics (L. helveticus and B. longum) exhibited less #Anxiety and depression than controls.
  • [#Lactobacillus rhamnosus] - in pregnant women, supplementation with L. rhamnosus HN001 lead to significantly less postpartum depression and #Anxiety
  • - Patients with #Rheumatoid Arthritis, #Cancer, autoimmune diseases or other chronic inflammatory conditions are predisposed to depression.
  • - Depression > increased blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability (Bechter et al., 2010) and through a compromised BBB, cytokines and chemokines infiltrate the CNS, stimulating microglia and astrocyte activation. - This loss of barrier integrity was associated with elevated infiltration of cytokines and subsequent expression of depression-like behaviors
  • - depression has been described as a microglia-associated disorder with many depressed patients suffering from excessive microglial activation
  • [#Irritable bowel syndrome] - patients diagnosed with both IBS and major depression, a twice daily dose of #Bacillus coagulans MTCC 5856 was administered and treated patients demonstrated reduced depressive phenotypes on multiple scales
  • [#Major depressive disorder] [#Lipopolysaccharide] - elevated GIT permeability with an increased translocation of LPS from gram-negative bacteria plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of MDD
  • [#Phenolic acids] - #Anthocyanins can also be broken down into protocatechuic acid, further into the bioactive phenolic acid #Cyanidin-3-glucoside and finally into #3-hydroxycinnamic acid, which has potent anti-depressive effects possibly through mechanisms implicating inflammation.
  • [#Gender] - Depression > Female patients have a characteristic increase in the phyla #Actinobacteria, male patients have reduced #Bacteroidetes and both genders display disrupted #Firmicutes homeostasis and elevated #Collinsella spp. abundance
  • - in severe depression > reduced #Bifidobacteriaceae and #Prevotellaceae with elevated #Enterobacteriaceae and #Ruminococcaceae.
  • [#Bifidobacterium animalis lactis, #Bifidobacterium bifidum, #Bifidobacterium longum, #Lactobacillus acidophilus] [#humanized Galactooligosaccharides] [#Combination of probiotics and polyphenol-rich prebiotics] - patients were administered a synbiotic containing L. acidophilus, B. bifidum, B. lactis, and B. longum with the prebiotics FOS, GOS and #Inulin. In a subset of patients with depressive symptoms, the synbiotic significantly reduced the depressive score compared to both the #Probiotic-alone and placebo groups, which correlated to an increase in #BDNF serum levels.
  • - chronic psychological or physical stress induce a battery of depressive phenotypes through mechanisms related to abnormalities in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis signaling including hypersecretion of #C-reactive protein from the hypothalamus, impaired negative feedback of the HPA axis and hypercortisolemia.
  • - In mice, #Caffeic acid (4 mg/kg) was shown to have antidepressant-like activity independent of monoamine transduction suggesting that #Caffeic acid works through a non-monoameringeric system
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - #Caffeic acid, at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight in mice, prophylactically inhibited LPS-induced sickness behavior specifically by reducing cytokine production in serum and brain thus eliciting a protective effect against neuropathologies associated with depression
  • - #Ferulic acid has been shown to have potent implications in depression.
  • [#Lactobacillus brevis] - #GABA-producing L. brevis FPA 3709 can significantly reduce depressive-like behavior in rats
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - a single injection of LPS is associated with elevated systemic and central inflammatory mediators and significant cognitive deficits
  • [1.25
    - inoculation of healthy mice with GM from UCMS mice activates the Vagus Nerve and induces early and sustained changes in both #Serotonin and #Dopamine neurotransmission pathways in the brainstem and HPC. - #Vagotomy abrogates adult HPC neurogenesis deficits, neuroinflammation and depressive-like behavior, suggesting that vagal afferent pathways are necessary to drive GM-mediated effects on the brain.
  • [1.26
    - higher tissue #Polyamine levels have been reported in various diseases like #Dementia due to #Alzheimer’s disease (AD), #Parkinson’s Disease, #Cancer, and mental disorders like depression.
  • [1.27] [#Infants
    - the relative taxonomic quantitative abundances of #Bifidobacterium dentium and other species that have been associated with either modulation of the gut-brain axis, or other beneficial health outcomes, were reduced in the offspring of mothers with higher #Anxiety, perceived stress, and depression.
  • [1.28
    - Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduce stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior.
  • [1.29
    - Researchers identified two bacterial genera #Coprococcus and #Dialister were depleted in patients with depression whether or not they were taking antidepressants.
  • -The ability of microorganisms to produce #DOPAC, a metabolite of the human neurotransmitter dopamine, was associated with better mental quality of life in depressive patient.

References Notes

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Common References