Shared Reference Notes
- [1.1] [#Lachnospiraceae]
- 4 weeks of grape powder consumption > significantly increased the alpha diversity index of the gut microbiome > increasing #Verrucomicrobia at the phylum level, and a significant increase in #Akkermansia and increase in #Flavonifractor and Lachnospiraceae_UCG-010 > decrease in #Bifidobacterium and #Dialister at the genus level.
- [#Bile Acids] - Grape powder consumption > decreased the total #Cholesterol by 6.1% and HDL #Cholesterol by 7.6%. - There was also a trend of decreasing LDL #Cholesterol by 5.9%, and decreasing total bile acid by 40.9%.
- - Grapes provide a rich source of #Polyphenols and fibers
- [1.2] [#Sunburn]
- grape consumption modulated microbiota abundance, enzyme levels, and KEGG pathways. - three urinary metabolites, 2′-deoxyribonic acid, 3-hydroxyphenyl acetic and scyllo-inositol, were depressed in the UV-resistant group.
- [1.3] [#Grape seed]
- #Catechins and #Epicatechins are major constituents of grape seed extracts and the production of their bioactive metabolites is dependent on the presence of the microbiota
- - Apigenin and diosmetin, both grape-derived #Polyphenols, potently and dose-dependently inhibited AGE-induced #Nitric Oxide and TNFα release
- [#Polyphenols] - Dietary Polyphenol Preparation (BDPP) containing GSPE, concord grape juice and #Resveratrol was shown to attenuate #Sleep Deprivation-induced contextual memory deficits.
- Following 2 weeks of grape consumption, taxonomic abundance was altered (e.g., decreased #Holdemania spp. and increased #Streptococcus thermophiles), as were various enzyme levels and KEGG pathways. - 2′-deoxyribonic acid, glutaconic acid, and 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid were elevated following grape consumption and returned to baseline following the washout period.
- [1.5] [#Phenolic acids]
- #malvidin-3-O-glucoside (MG), a natural anthocyanin present in high proportions in grapes, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory effects, - MG is an anti-pyroptotic phenolic metabolite that targets NLRP3, NLRC4, and AIM2 inflammasomes, subsequently reducing caspase-1 and IL-1β protein levels in murine primary cortical microglia and the brain, as its beneficial effect to counteract #Anxiety and #Depression is also demonstrated.
- addition of #Tea #Polyphenols increased #Akkermansia abundance in HF mice, which is consistent with previous research indicating that TP, #Cranberry, chlorogenic acid, and grape also increase the colonization of #Akkermansia in the gut - increase in small intestinal goblet cells in TP-treated mice, which secrete mucins, a food source for #Akkermansia development. - #Polyphenols increase intestinal mucus secretion which is the food source of #Akkermansia.
- [1.7] [#Peanut, #Soybean]
- #Resveratrol has been found in more than 70 different plant species and important dietary sources are grapes (skin and seeds), red wine, peanuts, and soy.