Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Disease ⇒ Colitis {40000146}

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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Food colorants
    -Colitis induction was dependent on the commensal microbiota such as B. ovatus and E. faecalis promoting the azo reduction of Red 40 and generation of a metabolite, 1-amino-2-naphthol-6-sulfonate sodium salt.
  • [1.2] [#Colorectal cancer, #Crohn’s disease, #Inflamatory bowel disease] [#Common consumer products
    - #Triclosan (TCS), an antimicrobial agent found in thousands of consumer products > exacerbates colitis and colitis-associated colorectal tumorigenesis in animal models. - intestinal commensal microbes > microbial β-glucuronidase (GUS) enzymes > mediate metabolic activation of #Triclosan in the colon > gut toxicology.
  • [1.3] [#Crohn’s disease] [#Candida tropicalis
    - C. tropicalis > induces dysbiosis that involves changes in the presence of mucin-degrading bacteria #Akkermansia muciniphila and #Ruminococcus gnavus > leading to altered tight junction protein expression with increased intestinal permeability > followed by induction of robust Th1/Th17 responses > lead to an accelerated proinflammatory phenotype in experimental colitic mice.
  • [1.4
    - Brain’s insular cortex (InsCtx) stores immune-related information. - Chemogenetic reactivation of these neuronal ensembles > broadly retrieve the inflammatory state under which these neurons were captured.
  • [1.5
  • [1.6
    - Oral gavages of #Klebsiella oxytoca, #Escherichia coli, and #Cronobacter sakazakii belonging to Enterobacteriaceae, singly or together, caused dose-dependently colitis and #Depression-like behaviors in germ-free and specific-pathogen-free mice.
  • [1.7] [#Hypertension] [#High salt diet
    - Salt consumption decreased #Lactobacillus abundance, which was linked to increased T helper 17 cell numbers in murine small intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes and human peripheral blood lymphocytes, as well as higher blood pressure. - a high-salt diet reduced #Lactobacillus abundance, increased proinflammatory gene expression, and exacerbated colitis in two separate disease models
  • [1.8] [#Inflamatory bowel disease
    - #Psyllium, a fiber derived from Plantago seeds, can inhibit #inflammation that leads to Colitis in mice by increasing serum #Bile Acids and activating the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). - This is exciting since it suggests that pharmacologic FXR activation might be an interesting target for the management of inflammation found in IBD.
  • [1.9
    - 3,8-Dihydroxy-urolithin (#Urolithin A), a metabolite of #Ellagic acid which is found in high levels in pomegranate, acts on the #AHR and nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (NRF2) signalling pathways to upregulate the expression of TJs proteins and ameliorate colitis - #Urolithin A is an agonist of #AHR able to reduce the expression of inflammatory genes.
  • [#Clostridium difficile associated disease] -#Bile Salt hydrolases (BSH) enzymes can restrict the growth of the deadly colitis-inducing bacterium #Clostridioides difficile.
  • [1.11] [#Ulcerative Colitis] [#Lactobacillus mucosae
    - In ulcerative colitis, excessive epithelial repair results in lower PPAR-γ synthesis, which reduces beta-oxidation and increases oxygenation of colonocytes. Inflamed mucosae in colitis patients are increased in #Proteobacteria, a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria, but decreased in gram-positive #Firmicutes. Treatment with PPAR-γ agonist, however, can improve the microbial balance
  • [1.12
    - In acute colitis, #Melatonin led to increased clinical, systemic and intestinal inflammatory parameters. - During remission, continued MLT administration delayed recovery, increased TNF, memory effector lymphocytes and diminished spleen regulatory cells. - MLT treatment reduced #Bacteroidetes and augmented #Actinobacteria and #Verrucomicrobia phyla in mice feces. - Microbiota depletion resulted in a remarkable reversion of the colitis phenotype after MLT administration, including a counter-regulatory immune response, reduction in TNF and colon macrophages. - There was a decrease in #Actinobacteria, #Firmicutes and, most strikingly, #Verrucomicrobia phylum in recovering mice. Finally, these results pointed to a gut-microbiota-dependent effect of MLT in the potentiation of intestinal inflammation.
  • [1.13] [#Palmitoleic acid
    - co-administration of POA with #Akkermansia muciniphila showed significant synergistic protections against colitis in mice.
  • [1.14] [#Diabetes Type 1
    - The protein expressed by the #Bacteroides is almost identical to a protein expressed by insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. - The CD8 lymphocytes can mistakenly attack the pancreatic cells and cause type 1 diabetes.

References Notes

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