Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Disease ⇒ Major depressive disorder ⇒ Depression {40000197}

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Major depressive disorder


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References Notes

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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.5
    -The levels of fecal GABA and its relevant metabolites (N-acetylornithine, proline, oxoproline, and glutathione) were consistently decreased in MDD relative to HCs, suggesting a decrease in GABA content in the intestine.
    - A microbial enzyme–related gene (BetB) that participated in arginine metabolism to GABA was down-regulated in MDD.
    - Three microbial genes involved in the metabolism of glutamine to GABA was up-regulated in MDD.
    - Fecal GABA level in the patients with MDD may be modulated by a panel of gut microbes, which may be implicated in the development of MDD.
    - Majority of genes involved in the phenylalanine catabolic pathways were decreased in MDD, suggesting an inhibition of fecal phenylalanine degradation.
    - A downstream catabolic product of homovanillate was also decreased in MDD. These findings were consistent with disturbances of phenylalanine metabolism in MDD.
    - A gene (kynu) involved in kynurenic acid to quinolinic acid was enriched in MDD subjects relative to HCs, yielding an increased synthesis of the neurotoxic metabolite quinolinic acid.
    - A lower fecal quinolinic acid level in MDD.
    - These preliminary findings may account for the higher blood level of quinolinic acid observed in MDD.
    - Microbial GABA, phenylalanine, and quinolinic acid metabolisms were linked with MDD onset
  • [1.10
    - Major depression and anxiety states, are common in patients presenting with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • [1.11
    - Patients with major depressive disorder showed a statistically significant overrepresentation of Bacteroides enterotype 2 compared to controls.
  • [1.12
    - γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production by human-derived Bacteroides is widespread, and there is a correlation between brain signatures of depression and fecal Bacteroides levels in patients with major depressive disorder.
  • [1.13
    - MDD is associated with higher relative abundance of Clostridiales , OTU16802 Bacteroides and Prevotellaceae.
    - Similar association directions of for Blautia with MDD and SCZ.
    - Increased Bacilli is potentially associated with a higher risk of MDD, possibly involving dopamine metabolism which might play a role in the major symptoms of MDD.
    - Animal models found increased levels of Gammaproteobacteria were also associated with higher MDD risk and fluoxetine treatment was effective, implying strong correlations between gut microbiota and anxiety- and depression-like behaviors. (6)
  • [1.7
    - Mendelian randomization analysis indicated a potential causal effect of Morganella on major depressive disorder, consistent with observational incident
  • - Actinobacteria were found to be increased, whereas Bacteroidetes were decreased in relation to other phyla, and some studies suggested decreased microbial diversity in MDD patients

Common References