Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

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Staphylococcus ⇒ Staphylococcus epidermidis {10000106}

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Staphylococcus epidermidis


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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1] [#Cutibacterium acnes
    - #Acne > increased #Actinobacteria followed by #Firmicutes and #Proteobacteria, #Cutibacterium,#Staphylococcus and #Corynebacterium. - C. acnes > major species in terms of mean abundance, followed by #Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and #Staphylococcus hominis (S. hominis);
  • [1.2] [#Atopic Dermatitis] [#Staphylococcus aureus
    - increased abundance of S. aureus with depletion of S. epidermidis and #Corynebacterium spp. among AD patients. - S. epidermidis, a commensal present on non–inflamed skin, appears to be S. aureus best antagonist. - less severe flares of AD had higher counts of S. epidermidis whereas the more severe flares were associated with S. aureus
  • [1.3] [#Phenol-soluble modulin (PSM)
    - S. epidermidis produces the peptides PSMγ and PSMδ, which inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria on the skin.
  • [1.4] [#Human breast milk
    - S. epidermidis is predominantly a commensal skin microbe in humans but can also colonize the infant gut as a founding member in part through breastmilk seeding. - S. epidermidis tends to disappear from the gut with age, its presence during early immune education may facilitate establishment of a largely tolerogenic intestinal memory CD4+ T cell pool. - S. epidermidis can turn pathologic when it becomes bloodborne in an at-risk host.
  • [1.5] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - Staphylococcus epidermidis, and molecular mechanisms are activated by SCFAs via the liver feedback mechanism
  • [1.6] [#Natural Skin Microbiome
    - Staphylococcus epidermidis, can also interact with the host’s keratinocytes directly, thereby inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides via immune cell signaling.
  • [1.7] [#Dry Skin, #Natural Skin Microbiome
    - abundant skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis contributes to skin barrier integrity. - S. epidermidis secretes a sphingomyelinase that acquires essential nutrients for the bacteria and assists the host in producing #Ceramides, the main constituent of the epithelial barrier that averts skin dehydration and aging. - In mouse models, S. epidermidis significantly increases skin ceramide levels and prevents water loss of damaged skin in a fashion entirely dependent on its sphingomyelinase.
  • [1.8
    - S. epidermidis is also frequently detectable in the skin of patients with the inflammatory skin disease #Atopic Dermatitis (AD) and some studies reported a significantly higher presence of S. epidermidis in severe AD as compared to mild AD. - Various S. epidermidis skin-derived isolates activated the proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB and induced expression of AD-associated proinflammatory cytokines in human primary keratinocytes and 3D skin equivalents.
  • [#Natural Skin Microbiome] - Skin barrier molecules such as filaggrin were downregulated by S. epidermidis.
  • [1.9] [#Natural Skin Microbiome, #Severe skin and soft tissue infection] [#Dermatologic Filler
    - The control group had significantly higher levels of beneficial Staphylococcus epidermidis than the study group. - Those with infections had significantly higher levels of pathogenic bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella oxytoca , and Staphylococcus haemolyticus when compared with the control group. - The differences in nasal skin flora may predispose filler recipients to a late-onset biofilm infection.
  • [#Atopic Dermatitis] - in #Infants > Staphylococcus epidermidis was found protective against AD as well as in older populations
  • [1.11
    - application of Staphylococcus epidermidis to mouse skin showed enhanced innate protection against #Candida albicans by upregulating Th17 immune mediators such as S100A8 and S100A9
  • [1.12] [#Natural Skin Microbiome
    - tarIJLM (#Staphylococcus aureus-type wall teichoic acid) alters the lifestyle of S. epidermidis from commensal to pathogenic
  • [1.13
    - The S. epidermidis agr regulon controls production of a small suite of potential virulence factors like proteases, lipases, and immunomodulatory #Phenol soluble modulins (PSMs), and retention of the agr system is necessary for skin colonization
  • [1.14] [#Cutibacterium acnes] [#Short Chain Fatty Acid
    - some SCFAs produced by C. acnes are antimicrobial and can inhibit biofilm formation by other organisms such as S. epidermidis
  • [1.15] [#Staphylococcus aureus] [#Antimicrobial peptides
    - Staphylococcus epidermidis produces #Epidermin or the #Hominicin produced by #Staphylococcus hominis, with both AMPs being extremely effective against S. aureus

References Notes

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Common References