Disease ⇒ Cancer ⇒ Prostate cancer {40000176}

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Prostate cancer


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Gastroenterology, Urology, Oncology
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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Propionibacterium acnes is the most predominant bacteria found and its presence is significantly associated with prostate tissue inflammation. - Escherichia and also Propionibacterium acnes has the highest relative abundance.
  • [1.2
    - Androgen deprivation (Abiraterone acetate ) therapy depletes androgen-utilizing Corynebacterium in prostate cancer patients and that oral AA further enriches for the health-associated commensal, Akkermansia muciniphila. - Functional inferencing elucidates a coinciding increase in bacterial biosynthesis of vitamin K2 (an inhibitor of androgen dependent and independent tumor growth)
  • [1.3
    - unique microbial signature in patients undergoing oral #Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as compared with prostate cancer patients not on ADT. - Patients undergoing ADT also had enrichment of bacterial metabolic pathways promoting androgen synthesis. Together, these studies have identified a unique GU microbiome and linked both the GU microbiome and unique gut microbial signatures with prostate cancer and prostate cancer treatments.
  • [1.4] [#High Fat Diet, #Western-style diet
    - HFD promoted inflammatory PCa growth. - The expression of Hdc, the gene responsible for #Histamine biosynthesis, and #Histamine levels were upregulated in large prostate tumors of HFD-fed mice, and the number of mast cells increased around the tumor foci. - HFD intake induced gut dysbiosis, resulting in the elevation of serum #Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS increased Hdc expression in PCa.
  • [1.5
    -The antibacterial and antitumor defensin (HBD1) showed decreased levels in prostate cancer patients, while others (HBD2 and 3) were considerably increased. - Abundance of #Staphylococcus, #Corynebacterium and #Oxyphotobacteria genera was significantly higher, the abundance of #Faecalibacterium and #Bacteroides genera were significantly lower in prostate tumor samples compared to non-tumor samples. - #Bacteroides, Parabacteroides and #Faecalibacterium abundance gradually decreased with the combined increase in HBD2 and HBD3. - Higher #Corynebacterium and #Staphylococcus abundances were measured together with higher HBD2 and HBD3 urinary levels.
  • [1.6
  • [1.7
    - #Ruminococcus gnavus and #Bacteroides acidifaciens were enriched in the fecal microbiota of castrated (as compared to non-castrated) male mice, and that these species can metabolise androgen precursors, pregnenolone and hydroxypregnenolone, into downstream metabolites of the androgen biosynthesis pathway, dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone.
  • - species such as #Bacteroides fragilis, Saimiriine betaherpesvirus, #Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus had a significantly reduced abundance in the malignant as compared to the benign prostate tissue samples.
  • [#Bacteroides massiliensis] - Prostate cancer > a higher relative abundance of Bacteriodes massiliensis as well as decreased relative abundances of #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and #Eubacterium rectale in the stool from men with PCa compared to the controls.
  • - #Cutibacterium acnes (formerly, #Propionibacterium acnes) is a skin-associated commensal that has been detected in the prostate of men with Prostate cancer in several studies. - C. acnes can induce cell proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and chemokines such as IL-6 and IL-8
  • [#Escherichia coli] - E. coli-induced inflammation > onset of Prostate cancer or pre-neoplastic lesions.
  • [#Faecalibacterium prausnitzii] - fecal abundances of F. prausnitzii observed in benign as compared to malignant patient samples. - F. prausnitzii is generally considered to have anti-inflammatory properties with its ability to produce butyrate and induce secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines.
  • [#Listeria monocytogenes] - Microbes such as L. monocytogenes are known to play anti-tumor roles in Prostate cancer , for example by stimulating the innate and adaptive immune response
  • - Prostate Cancer > increase in the abundance of #Microbacterium species in the T3 tumor samples as compared to the T2 samples
  • - Prostate Cancer > #Nevskia ramose was found to have a positive correlation with Gleason score although its significance in PCa is not understood.
  • - increase in the abundance of #Shewanella in the malignant as compared to the benign prostate tissue samples. - those that had a higher abundance of #Shewanella were associated with dysregulated host immune response > enabling tumor-immune evasion.
  • [1.8
    - Prostate Cancer > four novel bacteria #Fenollaria sporofastidiosus and #Peptoniphilus rachelemmaiella and #Varibaculum prostatecancerukia and #Porphyromonas bobii were frequently found in patient urine,
  • [1.9] [#Breast cancer, #Menopause] [#Soybean
    - soy #Isoflavone intake is associated with a modest reduction in menopausal hot flushes and decreased breast and prostate cancer risk.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - increased abundance of gut ##Ruminococcus and ##Alistipes in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients along with ##Bacteroidales, ##Rikenellaceae, ##Faecalibacterium,the so called SCFAs-producing microbiotas.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - FMT with CRPC patients’ fecal suspension > increase SCFAs-producing gut microbiotas such as #Ruminococcus, #Alistipes, Phascolarctobaterium in TRAMP, and correspondingly raised their gut SCFAs (#Acetate and ##Butyrate) levels.
  • - gut #Ruminococcus was significantly more abundant in CRPC individuals.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - SCFAs upregulated the expression of a majority of TLRs family, and TLR3-triggered autophagy promoted PCa cells migration and invasion. - TLR3 perceived SCFAs to induce PCa cells autophagy, and activate survival signalings like NF-κB and MAPK.
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - Gut microbiota-derived SCFAs under #High Fat Diet could promote PCa growth via IGF1 signalings.
  • [1.11] [#Cancer
    - #Akkermansia muciniphila extracellular vesicles interact with CD8-positive T-cells and macrophages to stimulate anti-tumor immunity
  • - #Anaerofilum is protective because it reduces inflammation caused by #Alistipes, which produce pro-inflammatory mediators and raise the risk of PCA
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - #Subdoligranulum, #Lachnobacterium, #Christensenellaceae, #Lachnospira, #Rikenellaceae, #Eggerthella, and #Alistipes are members of the SCFA-producing order #Clostridiales and were shown to be more prevalent in individuals with high-grade PCA.
  • - #Bacteroides massiliensis contributes to the rising incidence of prostatic cancer, and a study shows increased levels of Bacteroides spp. in high-grade PCA
  • - #Bacteroides massiliensis also contributes to the increased occurrence of PCA by raising free estrogens in the circulation as a result of glucuronidases.
  • - Men who have greater levels of #Choline, #Betaine, or PCA-related metabolites linked to the gut microbiome (such as #Phenylacetylglutamine) have around two times as many chances of developing incident PCA cancer in the future.
  • - In LNCaP and LAPC4 PCA cells, sodium #Butyrate decreases the expression of the AR, which plays a crucial role in developing and spreading PCA.
  • [#Aging, #Gender] - The number of #Firmicutes and serum testosterone levels were positively associated with older male participants.
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - PCA growth was facilitated by the nuclear factor-beta (NF-B)-IL6-STAT3 axis being triggered by an intratumoral increase of LPS
  • - #Prevotella stercorea reduced the synthesis of testosterone and the risk of PCA
  • [#Propionate] [#Carbohydrate diet] - The use of propionates decreases the probability of human PCA spreading. - The intestinal flora processes these three metabolites of a high-carbohydrate meal
  • [#Reactive Oxygen Species] - Increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and increased free estrogens result in apurinic DNA sites that trigger mutations and the beginning of oncogenesis in prostate cells
  • - #Ruminococcus can convert pregnenolone and hydroxypregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone, which are downstream metabolites. - Abiraterone #Acetate, a specific inhibitor of CYP17A1, prevents the bacterial conversion of pregnenolone to DHEA and testosterone. - #Ruminococcus possesses genes with significant sequence similarity with human CYP17
  • [#Short Chain Fatty Acid] - PCA cells release IGF-1 in an autocrine manner, which promotes PCA development by activating the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) signaling pathways. - Through both systemic and local prostate IGF-1, SCFAs, a significant gut microbiota metabolite, control PCA development.
  • [1.12] [#Listeria monocytogenes
    - L. monocytogenes was detected in the prostate cancer TME
  • [1.13

References Notes

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Common References

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