Disease ⇒ Cancer ⇒ Melanoma {40000152}

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Initialisation date:
Other Terms:
Malignant melanoma


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Dermatology, Oncology
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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Patients with an unfavorable gut microbiome (e.g., low diversity and high relative abundance of Bacteroidales) have impaired systemic and anti-tumor immune responses mediated by limited intratumoral lymphoid and myeloid infiltration and weakened antigen presentation capacity. - The gut microbiome may modulate responses to anti PD-1 immunotherapy in melanoma patients. - Patients with a favorable gut microbiome (e.g., high diversity and abundance of Ruminococcaceae/Faecalibacterium) have enhanced systemic and anti-tumor immune responses mediated by increased antigen presentation, and improved effector T cell function in the periphery and the tumor microenvironment.
  • [1.2
    - FMT and anti–PD-1 changed the gut microbiome and reprogrammed the tumor microenvironment to overcome resistance to anti–PD-1 in a subset of PD-1 advanced melanoma.
  • [1.3] [#High fibre diet
    - Higher dietary fiber > improved progression-free survival in 128 patients on immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) treatment, with the most pronounced benefit observed in patients with sufficient dietary fiber intake and no probiotic use.
  • [1.4
    -Bifidobacterium emerged as strongly associated with T cell response, and consistently, oral administration of a cocktail of Bifidobacterium species combined with an anti-PD-L1 antibody nearly abolished the melanoma growth. - Bifidobacterium longum, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Enterococcus faecium was associated with anti-PD1 efficacy in metastatic melanoma patients. (2)
  • [1.5] [#kynurenine, #Tryptophan
    - A high-serum Kyn/Trp ratio is also correlated with a poor prognosis after a PD-1 blockade in #Lung cancer, melanoma and #renal cell carcinomas
  • [1.6] [#Antibiotic Therapy
    - gut microbiome depletion by broad-spectrum antibiotics accelerated intraosseous tumor growth and osteolysis. - Microbiome depletion blunted melanoma-induced expansion of intestinal NK cells and Th1 cells and their migration from the gut to tumor-bearing bones.
  • [1.7] [#Breast cancer, #Ovarian cancer, #Pancreatic Cancer
    - Fungi were detected in 35 #Cancer types and were often intracellular. - 0%–25% of the tumors per #Cancer type to be positive for either β-glucan or Aspergillus staining. - fungal staining was mainly evident within #Cancer cells in pancreatic, breast, and ovarian #Cancer, it mostly localized to macrophages in melanoma and lung cancers
  • [#Colorectal cancer] - #Ascomycota and #Basidiomycota phyla dominated the intratumor mycobiome. The #Ascomycota to #Basidiomycota ratio (A/B ratio) was highest in colon cancer, due to abundant #Saccharomycetes, and lowest in melanoma, due to abundant #Malasseziomycetes.
  • [1.8] [#Limosilactobacillus (Lactobacillus) reuteri] [#Indole-3-aldehyde
    - #Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (Lr) translocates to, colonizes, and persists within melanoma, where via its released dietary #Tryptophan catabolite I3A, it locally promotes interferon-γ-producing CD8 T cells, thereby bolstering ICI (immune checkpoint inhibitor ).
  • [1.9] [#Cancer
    - An #Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-favorable response was characterized by an intestinal microbiome rich in bacteria such as #Oscillospira sp., #Clostridia UCG-014, #Lachnospiraceae UCG-010 sp., #Prevotella copri, and a decrease in #Sutterella sp., #Lactobacillales, and #Streptococcus sp. - Patients who developed immune-related adverse events (irAEs) had an overall increased microbial diversity and richness, and a stool microbiome depleted in #Agathobacter.
  • [#Actinomyces odontolyticus] - In #Hepatobiliary cancers and metastatic melanoma, #Actinomyces genus and members (e.g., #Actinomyces odontolyticus) are consistently enriched in non-responders, whereas #Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is increased in responders.
  • [#Immune checkpoint inhibitor] - In multiple advanced melanoma datasets > #Roseburia spp. associated with good response to ICI
  • [#Immune checkpoint inhibitor] - #Eudoraea and #Desulfonatronospira showed significant increase in patients who benefited from the treatment, suggesting that increasing abundance of these two genera in tumors may improve the outcome of ICB treatment. - #Eudoraea could enhance anti-PD-1 immunotherapy in melanoma. - Treatment with #Eudoraea alone or in combination with anti-PD-1 did not result in significant changes in spleen size and body weight. - increases in the percentage of immune cells in the tumor, percentage of CD8+ T cells in the T cells (CD8+/CD3+), and percentage of cytolytic T cells in the CD8+ T cells (GZMB+/CD8+) for the combination of anti-PD-1 and #Eudoraea. - 458 upregulated and 10 downregulated genes in the combination therapy of anti-PD-1 and #Eudoraea vs. anti-PD-1.
  • [1.11
    - Microbiomes were distinct between patients with early-stage and late-stage melanoma.
  • - Patients with melanoma had a higher relative abundance of #Fusobacterium compared with controls on univariate analysis
  • - Early-stage melanoma had a higher alpha diversity, and a higher abundance of the genus #Roseburia
  • [1.12
    - Melanoma > Taxa that were more abundant in tumors of responders included #Clostridium, whereas #Gardnerella vaginalis was more abundant in tumors of nonresponders.
  • - #Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) was detected mainly in melanomas and was largely absent in other tumor types.
  • [1.13] [#Prevotella copri
    - P. copri was more abundant in patients with stage I and stage II melanoma than in healthy individuals.
  • [1.14] [#Salmonella typhimurium
    - attenuated S. Typhimurium systemically administered to a mouse model of melanoma featured a sustained ability to invade tumor cells. - Prior vaccination of mice that generated Salmonella-specific T cells resulted in a substantial improvement in tumor load.
  • [#Staphylococcus aureus] - S. aureus was suggested to be present in melanoma

References Notes

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Common References

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