Disease ⇒ Hepatic encephalopathy {40000303}

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Hepatic encephalopathy


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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - #lactulose exerts its beneficial effects on hepatic encephalopathy through different pathways. - First, the product of #lactulose fermentation is #Lactic acid, which is able to reduce the colonic lumen pH by releasing H+. - The #Ammonia in the gut reacts with proton and produces ammonium. This conversion develops a concentration gradient that increases the amount of #Ammonia reuptake from the blood into the gastrointestinal tract. - Second, in the presence of #lactulose in the gastrointestinal tract, the bacteria utilize the energy of #lactulose fermentation instead of the conversion of amino acids to #Ammonia energy. - Third, #lactulose can inhibit glutaminase and prevent the production of #Ammonia from #Glutamine. - Finally, #lactulose shortens the colonic transit time. Thus, it can reduce the level of #Ammonia in the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [1.2
    - high levels of #Oxindole and #Isatin, after the epithelial and hepatic enzymatic digestion of #Indole in blood and urine, respectively, have been detected in hepatic encephalopathy and #Parkinson’s Disease
  • [1.3
    - #Megasphaera is associated with #Cognitive impairment and inflammation in patients with hepatic encephalopathy.

References Notes

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