Disease ⇒ Male Infertility {40000569}

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Male Infertility


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Shared Reference Notes

  • [1.1
    - Lactobacillus-predominant semen has been reported to have higher quality with respect to Prevotella-or Pseudomonas-predominant semen with Lactobacilli being able to prevent sperm lipid peroxidation, and to preserve sperm motility and viability
  • [1.2
    - potential protective role against male infertility> #Bacteroides, #Romboutsia - #Allisonella was positively associated with male infertility.
  • [#Lipopolysaccharide] - Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) is expressed in human sperm and Sertoli cells, and endotoxin acts as a ligand for TLR-4. - activated inflammatory factors, which can cause vascular endothelial damage, disruption of the blood-testis barrier, and impair spermatogenesis and viability,ultimately contributing to male infertility;
  • - intestinal capillary endothelial cells express iNOS, which is the rate-limiting enzyme for #Nitric Oxide (NO) biosynthesis. - Under the stimulation of endotoxin, pathogenic microorganisms can induce the binding of specific bacterial species or NF-κB to the promoter region of iNOS, thereby upregulating transcription of iNOS28. - The abnormal increases in iNOS can disrupt the integrity of tight junctions within the blood-testis barrier, impair sperm-egg binding during fertilization, induce apoptosis in germ cells, and adversely affect sperm count. - elevated levels of NO inhibit sperm mitochondrial respiration, leading to mitochondrial hyperpolarization, the release of cytochrome C, and ultimately, the death of sperm cells. - the presence of endotoxin can significantly reduce Bin1b expression and its affinity for sperm, thereby impairing sperm maturation and motility

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