Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine

Akkermansia {10000161}

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Enzyme:[  ]
Mucin-degrading, Anti-inflammatory


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Shared Notes

  • [1.59
    -Increased abundance of Akkermansia and Holdemania were found to be predictive of MS.
    - Akkermansia showed negative associations with the bile acid components taurocholate, bile acid glycocholate and fatty acid anions 3-hydroxyoctanoate and caproate.
    - The identification of bile acids associated with a number of our taxa is consistent with several studies showing an integral role of the gut bile acid pool as a modulator of host immune response and inflammation
  • [1.60
    - Akkermansia spp can reduce inflammation by a number of different mechanisms such as reducing plasma level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP), reducing the expression of inflammatory genes, and reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17, IL-23, IL-8, TNF-α as well as increasing the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-12.
    - While low levels of Akkermansia were found in obesity and type-2 diabetes mouse models, exogenous administration of Akkermansia increased the control of gut inflammation and permeability by regulating tight-junction-related proteins, and thickening the intestinal mucous layer.
  • - The commonly used diabetes treatment Metformin increase Akkermansia spp. abundance, and to significantly improve glucose metabolism in high-fat diet fed mice while also increasing the number of mucin-producing goblet cells.
  • - The population of Akkermansia in the gut is negatively modulated by the fat content of the consumed diet.
  • [1.57
    - Infants fed with breast milk rich in betaine showed reduced growth rates after birth.
    - Experiments in mice showed that giving betaine to female mice improved blood sugar metabolism and lowered fat tissue in breastfeeding offspring.
    - When breast-fed with milk rich in betaine, both mouse pups and human infants had higher amounts of Akkermansia bacteria in their guts.
    - Low levels of maternal betaine during pregnancy are linked to increased infant weight at birth.
    - Maternal betaine supplementation resulted in lower fetal weight in a mouse study.
  • [1.61
    - In a mouse model oral administration of Akkermansia activated toll-like receptor 2, increased the expression of epithelial tight-junction proteins, and reversed high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance
    - Akkermansia was the only genus that was underrepresented in patients with elevated HbA1c

Common References