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- Choline > Elevated plasma levels of the gut microbe-dependent metabolite TMAO > predict incident risk for CVD development independent of traditional risk factors.
- Meat-based diet > L-carnitine > Gut microbial transformation >intermediate γ-butyrobetaine (γBB) > trimethylamine (TMA) > TMAO
- Plasma γBB levels in individuals > strongly associated with incident CVD event risks.
- Emergencia timonensis > metabolize γBB into TMA > complete the carnitine → γBB → TMA transformation > elevate TMAO levels > enhance thrombosis
- Fish > rich in preformed TMAO > greatest impact on circulating TMAO concentrations; however, fish intake is associated with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease
- Prob+BBR superior to BBR or Prob alone in improving postprandial total cholesterol (pTC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (pLDLc) levels with decrement of multiple species of postprandial lipidomic metabolites after 3 months follow-up.
- This effect was linked to the changes of fecal Bifidobacterium breve level responding to BBR alone or Prob+BBR treatment.
- Four fadD genes encoding long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase > identified in the genome of this B. breve strain, and transcriptionally activated by BBR.
- The activation of fadD by BBR could enhance FFA import and mobilization in B. breve and diliminish the intraluminal lipids for absorption to mediate the effect of Prob+BBR on PL.