HTN , HT, high blood pressure (HBP)
- Higher levels of the genus Ruminococcus > increased risk of high blood pressure. (3)
- Sodium reduction > increased all 8 SCFAs > significant increases in 2-methylbutyrate, butyrate, hexanoate, isobutyrate, and valerate.
- Increased SCFAs > decreased blood pressure and improved arterial compliance > significant sex differences of SCFAs in response to sodium reduction.
- Sodium reduction only in Female > significant increases in butyrate, hexanoate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, and valerate.
- In females > changes in isobutyrate, isovalerate, and 2-methylbutyrate > inversely associated with reduced blood pressures.
- Increased valerate > associated with decreased carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity.
- Elevated putative succinate-producing bacteria and acetate-producing bacteria > respectively, lower and higher mean arterial pressure in mouse
- Prevotella and Klebsiella > overrepresented in individuals with pHTN or HTN.
- A. muciniphila > vitamin B1 productio > may influence blood pressure.
- Olf78 >The last receptor for SCFAs > observed in the olfactory bulb, enteroendocrine cells, the kidney, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, and heart.
- Acetate and propionate, but not butyrate > stimulate Olf78 > induces an increase in blood pressure via renin secretion .
- A 5-day fast followed by a modified Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet reduces systolic blood pressure, need for antihypertensive medications, body-mass index at three months post intervention compared to a modified Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension diet alone.
- Fasting alters > gut microbiome > impacting bacterial taxa and gene modules associated with short-chain fatty acid production.
- - Propionate treatment in mice > antihypertensive effect.
- - 9,10-dichloro-octadecanoic acid (stearic acid) > positive association > microflora including Klebsiella, Prevotella, and Enterbacter > all overrepresented in HTN.
- In HTN > microbial richness and diversity > decreased with Prevotella-dominated gut enterotype.
- Faecalibacterium, Oscillibacter, Roseburia, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, and Butyrivibrio > declined in pHTN and HTN patients.
- The enterotype dominated by Prevotella > increased in pHTN and HTN populations.
- Stearic acid, an important metabolite in HTN, is positively linked to Prevotella.
- Prevotella > triggering the inflammatory response > HTN.
- - Prevotella copri > thrives in a pro-inflammatory environment.
- The superoxide reductase and phosphoadenosine phosphosulphate reductase encoded by Prevotella copri > may favor the development of inflammation.
- Colonization with Prevotella copri > enhances body weight loss and exacerbates epithelial inflammation in colitis mouse model.
- Nitrate-rich supplements > stimulate nitrate reduction by the oral microbiota > resulting in a lowering of blood pressure.
- Coexisting hypertension and periodontal disease > increased Neisseria and Solobacterium genera
- Bacteroidetes (Odoribacter and Alistipes genera) > often contribute to the overall butyrogenic pool.
- SCFA-producing bacteria > may affect blood pressure by direct effects of SCFA on vasodilation or through plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)