Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine

Type 2 diabetes {40000105}

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Type 2 diabetes
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Other Terms:
T2D, adult-onset diabetes
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- Enterobacter cloacae B29 induced obesity and insulin resistance in germ-free mice. (3)

- PPI use is associated with reduced diversity of gut microbiome and consistent changes in the microbiota phenotype. (5)
- GIPR postbiotic agonist/antagonist may caus/prevent DM

Shared Notes

  • [1.35
    - Akkermansia muciniphila is a mucin degraders, an important role in the preservation of the integrity of the gut mucus layer, thus
    limiting the risk of systemic inflammation.
    - Dietary polyphenols such as anthocyanins (ACNs) and proanthocyanidins (PACs) protect against metabolic syndrome.
    - Supplementation of high-fat diets with ACNs or PACs has been shown to suppress the expression of genes involved in fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis, the regulation of lipogenesis and cholesterol biosynthesis, and the assembly of very low density
    - ACNs and PACs have also been argued to stem the development of insulin resistance by increasing insulin signaling, glycogen accumulation and adiponectin secretion in the presence of free fatty acids.
    A. muciniphila abundance has been linked to reduced weight gain, adiposity, insulin resistance, and/or inflammatory markers in many contexts, including during pregnancy.
  • [1.36
    - Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, an indicator of inflammation, shows a decreased abundance in diabetes and obese persons.
  • [1.37
    - Diabetes taking metformin had higher relative abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila, a microbiota known for mucin degradation, and several gut microbiota known for production of SCFAs, including Butyrivibrio, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Megasphaera, and an operational taxonomic unit of Prevotella.
  • [1.38
    - Duodenal hypercontractility observed during T2D leads to the genesis of aberrant signalling from the afferent nerves to the hypothalamus, contributing to systemic insulin resistance
    - Enteric NO has the capacity to decrease duodenal contractions and restore the gut-brain axis, subsequently improving insulin sensitivity
    - Prebiotic treatment (oligofructose) decreases duodenal hypercontractility by modulating ENS activity and an increase in the levels of an intestinal lipid, 12-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12-HETE).
    - The mechanism of prebiotic action implies the presence of an enkephalin/mu-opioid receptor and proliferator-activated receptor γ signalling and a bioactive lipid, 12S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.
  • [1.33
    - Synbiotic yogurt-fed mice demonstrated lower fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels.
    - The blood glucose rise during the meal tolerance test (MTT) is lower in the synbiotic yogurt-fed mice
    - Insulin sensitivit in not impacted by Synbiotic yogurt-fed in mice.
    - the abundances of fecal Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriacae correlate positively with FBG levels which increase the progression of diabetes in mice.
  • [1.39
    - Agonism of GIP receptor (GIPR) have glycemic effect.
  • [1.40
    - There is a significant correlation between gut microbiota dysbiosis and an elevated level of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in plasma samples of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D)
  • [1.41
    - The feeding of the synbiotic yogurt significantly reduced the development of hyperglycemia (diabetes) in response to high-fat diet feeding and streptozotocin compared to milk-fed controls.
  • [1.42
    - The commonly used diabetes treatment Metformin increase Akkermansia spp. abundance, and to significantly improve glucose metabolism in high-fat diet fed mice while also increasing the number of mucin-producing goblet cells.

Common References