Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine

Colorectal cancer ⇒ Cancer {40000123}

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Colorectal cancer


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Gastroenterologic, Oncologic
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- The microbiomes of colorectal cancer subjects have increased abundance of a module for naphthalene degradation (M00534).
- The modules for cobalt/nickel transport systems (M00245 and M00246) are depleted in subjects with colorectal cancer.
- Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) secretes Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT), which decreases E-cadherin levels. This loosens the attachments between intestinal epithelial cells and results in exposure to many antigens. Moreover, decreased E-cadherin promotes intracellular migration of beta-catenin and accelerates carcinogenic-related signaling such as Wnt signaling. (1)

- Ren is a potential agent for colon cancer prevention.
- Administration of Ren effectively suppress DMH-induced colonic carcinogenesis. (4)

Shared Notes

  • [1.43
    - Fusobacterium nucleatum is enriched in human colonic adenomas relative to surrounding tissue, suggesting that it may play a role in early initiation of colorectal cancer.
    - Further supporting this idea, F. nucleatum colonization promoted and exacerbated tumorigenesis in the gut of APCmin/+ mice, although the mechanism of pathogenesis remains unknown.
  • [1.44
    - Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii, F. nucleatum subsp. animalis, Porphyromonas asaccharolytica, and Peptostreptococcus stomatis, all of which were found to be enriched in tumor and stool samples from CRC patients.
    - Patients with Peptostreptococcus bacteremia have an increased risk of developing , in particular Peptostreptococcus stomatis and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. P. anaerobius has been found to be highly enriched in CRC patient stool and tissue.
    - Significant overabundance of P. gingivalis was found in fecal samples from CRC patients
    - Prevotella intermedia was associated with a higher risk of developing CRC and was identified in a multinational multicohort study of 526 metagenomic CRC fecal samples.
    - Overabundance of Parvimonas micra has been reported in CRC patient stool.
    Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis strains (ETBF) have been associated with CRC and is associated with sporadic CRC.
    - Tissues of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) carry B. fragilis and Escherichia coli biofilms.
    -The genotoxin colibactin is produced by polyketide synthase-positive E. coli and induces DNA double-strand breaks in vitro and in vivo. It increases tumor formation in vitro alone, or in co-colonization with ETBF in FAP patients.
    - B. fragilis and some Prevotellaceae, but also F. nucleatum, produce succinate, an inducer of proinflammatory pathways via succinate receptor 1 on immune cells .
    - E. coli catabolism of lysine to succinate involves the intermediate l-2-hydroxyglutarate, an oncometabolite that is involved in epigenetic deregulation in certain cancers.
  • [1.45
    - Studies have demonstrated an enrichment of Fusobacterium nucleatum in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissue.
    - Experimental studies have shown that Fusobacterium nucleatum activates the WNT signaling pathway in colorectal carcinoma cells and may promote colorectal tumour growth
    - a higher amount of tissue Fusobacterium nucleatum DNA has been associated with advanced disease stage and a lower density of T-cells in human colorectal carcinoma tissue.

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