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The amounts of anti-inflammatory butyrate-producer commensal bacteria present in non-pregnant women gut microbiota decrease while bacteria associated with pro-inflammatory responses, such as Proteobacteria, increase during pregnancy.
- Bacterial diversity tends to be reduced in vaginal microbiota during pregnancy while increasing vaginal Streptococci along with several specific Lactobacilli strains, which are thought to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria, as well as to help human digestion, and influence host innate and adaptive immune system responses.
- The gut microbiota shifts substantially throughout the progression of the pregnancy and is characterized by reduced individual richness (alpha-diversity) and increased inter-subject beta-diversity.
- During the first trimester, the gut microbiota pattern is similar in many aspects to that of healthy non-pregnant women, showing a predominance of Firmicutes, mainly Clostridiales, over Bacteroidetes.
-Then, maternal gut microbiota declines in butyrate-producing bacteria, while Bifidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and lactic acid-producing bacteria increase from the first to the third trimester, when the microbiota resembles an unpredictably disease-associated dysbiosis that differs greatly among normal pregnancies.
- During normal pregnancy, the composition of the vaginal microbiota changes as a function of gestational age, with an increase in the relative abundance for Lactobacillus spp., such as L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. gasserii, L. vaginalis, and a decrease in anaerobe or strict anaerobe microbial species, such as Atopobium, Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardenerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobilincus
- [1.1] The Evolving Microbiome from Pregnancy to Early Infancy: A Comprehensive Review  [Review] [Nutrients] [Journal] 
- [1.2] Ecological shifts of supragingival microbiota in association with pregnancy  [Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology] [Journal] 
- [1.3] The composition and stability of the vaginal microbiota of normal pregnant women is different from that of non-pregnant women  [Microbiome] [Journal] 
- [1.4] Pregnancy associates with alterations to the host and microbial proteome in vaginal mucosa  [American Journal of Reproductive Immunology] [Journal]