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The amounts of anti-inflammatory butyrate-producer commensal bacteria present in non-pregnant women gut microbiota decrease while bacteria associated with pro-inflammatory responses, such as Proteobacteria, increase during pregnancy.
- Bacterial diversity tends to be reduced in vaginal microbiota during pregnancy while increasing vaginal Streptococci along with several specific Lactobacilli strains, which are thought to prevent the growth of pathogenic bacteria, as well as to help human digestion, and influence host innate and adaptive immune system responses.
- The gut microbiota shifts substantially throughout the progression of the pregnancy and is characterized by reduced individual richness (alpha-diversity) and increased inter-subject beta-diversity.
- During the first trimester, the gut microbiota pattern is similar in many aspects to that of healthy non-pregnant women, showing a predominance of Firmicutes, mainly Clostridiales, over Bacteroidetes.
-Then, maternal gut microbiota declines in butyrate-producing bacteria, while Bifidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and lactic acid-producing bacteria increase from the first to the third trimester, when the microbiota resembles an unpredictably disease-associated dysbiosis that differs greatly among normal pregnancies.
- During normal pregnancy, the composition of the vaginal microbiota changes as a function of gestational age, with an increase in the relative abundance for Lactobacillus spp., such as L. crispatus, L. jensenii, L. gasserii, L. vaginalis, and a decrease in anaerobe or strict anaerobe microbial species, such as Atopobium, Prevotella, Sneathia, Gardenerella, Ruminococcaceae, Parvimonas, Mobilincus
- Probiotic supplementation > significantly reduced the severity of nausea, vomiting, constipation, and improved life quality in pregnant women.
- Probiotic intake increased fecal bsh (bile salt hydrolase) > free bile acids > facilitate intestinal mobility and metabolism > associated with lower vomiting scores.
[Coverage other Diseases (Overlap > 0.25)]
|Disease||Overlap||Common increased Organism||Common decreased Organism|
|Pregnancy||1.0000||15 (100%) : Aggregatibacter actinomycotemcomitans | Cloacibacterium | Janibacter | Lactobacillus crispatus | Lactobacillus gasseri | Lactobacillus iners | Lactobacillus jensenii | Lactobacillus vaginalis | Neisseria | Porphyromonas | Porphyromonas gingivalis | Proteobacteria | Streptococcus | Syntrophomonas | Treponema||21 (100%) : Actinomycetales | Anaerococcus vaginalis | Atopobium vaginae | Dialister | Eggerthella | Finegoldia magna | Gardnerella vaginalis | Leptotrichia amnionii | Megasphaera | Mobiluncus | Moryella | Parvimonas micra | Peptoniphilus | Prevotella | Prevotella bivia | Ruminococcaceae | Sneathia | Streptococcus | Streptococcus anginosus | Ureaplasma | Veillonella|
|Obesity||0.2762||4 (27%) : Lactobacillus iners | Porphyromonas | Porphyromonas gingivalis | Proteobacteria||6 (29%) : Dialister | Megasphaera | Prevotella | Ruminococcaceae | Streptococcus | Veillonella|
|HIV infection||0.2667||3 (20%) : Porphyromonas | Proteobacteria | Streptococcus||7 (33%) : Dialister | Eggerthella | Mobiluncus | Prevotella | Ruminococcaceae | Streptococcus | Veillonella|
|Colorectal cancer||0.2524||4 (27%) : Cloacibacterium | Porphyromonas | Porphyromonas gingivalis | Streptococcus||5 (24%) : Dialister | Megasphaera | Prevotella | Ruminococcaceae | Streptococcus|