Microbiome & Chronic Diseases

Evidence Based Medicine

Depression ⇒ Severe Mental Disorders {40000114}

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Other Terms:
Depressive Disorders, major depressive disorder, MDD
Initialisation date:


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Shared Notes

  • [1.1
    - One previously uncultured bacterium, provisionally named Evtepia gabavorous KLE1738, which required the presence of Bacteroides fragilis KLE1758 for growth. Using bio-assay driven purification of B. fragilis supernatant, Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system, was identified as the growth factor of E. gabavorous. In vitro feeding experiments and genomic analysis of E. gabavorous suggests an unusual metabolism focused on consuming GABA.
    - Using growth of E. gabavorous as an indicator. Reduced levels of GABA are associated with depression, and we found fewer GABA producers in a human cohort of depressed, bipolar, and/or schizophrenic individuals. By modulating the level of GABA, microbial producers and consumers of this neurotransmitter may be influencing host.
  • [1.3
    - GABA is the growth factor produced by Bacteroides fragilis.
    - An inverse relationship between the relative abundance of fecal Bacteroidesand functional connectivity in a part of the brain associated with elevated activity during depression. This means that low abundance of Bacteroides was associated with high activity in that part of the brain, and vice versa.
  • [1.2
    - There is a decrease in the endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling due to lower peripheral levels of fatty acid precursors of eCB ligands.
    - The adverse effects of UCMS-transferred microbiota is alleviated by selectively enhancing the central eCB or by complementation with a strain of the Lactobacilli genus.
  • [1.4
    - Chemogenetic activation of striatal microglia induces an aversive affective state
    - Chemogenetic inhibition of microglia blocks inflammation-induced aversion
    - Microglial interleukin 6 signaling and prostaglandin synthesis regulate affective state
    - Prostaglandin E2 from activated microglia reduces the excitability of striatal neurons
  • [1.5
    - It is found that the transfer of the microbiota from models with depression to that of other animals deprived of their microbiota also determined the transfer of the behavioral and physiological characteristics of the depression
  • - The administration of a probiotic cocktail, composed of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus helveticus, reduced the symptoms of depression and anxiety
  • - Butyrate reduced the depressive behavior, exerting an effect on the CNS in rats
  • [1.6
    - Lactobacillus rhamnosus reduce stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior.
  • [1.7
    - Researchers identified two bacterial genera " Coprococcus and Dialister " were depleted in patients with depression whether or not they were taking antidepressants.

Common References